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This limited version of GHOST, with uncles includable only up to 7 generations, was used for two reasons. First, unlimited GHOST would include too many complications into the calculation of which uncles for a given block are valid. Second, unlimited GHOST with compensation as used in Ethereum removes the incentive for a miner to mine on the main chain and not the chain of a public attacker.

Because every transaction published into the blockchain imposes on the network the cost of needing to download and verify it, there is a need for some regulatory mechanism, typically involving transaction fees, to prevent abuse. The default approach, used in Bitcoin, is to have purely voluntary fees, relying on miners to act as the gatekeepers and set dynamic minimums. This approach has been received very favorably in the Bitcoin community particularly because it is "market-based", allowing supply and demand between miners and transaction senders determine the price.

The problem with this line of reasoning is, however, that transaction processing is not a market; although it is intuitively attractive to construe transaction processing as a service that the miner is offering to the sender, in reality every transaction that a miner includes will need to be processed by every node in the network, so the vast majority of the cost of transaction processing is borne by third parties and not the miner that is making the decision of whether or not to include it.

Hence, tragedy-of-the-commons problems are very likely to occur. However, as it turns out this flaw in the market-based mechanism, when given a particular inaccurate simplifying assumption, magically cancels itself out. The argument is as follows. Suppose that:. A miner would be willing to process a transaction if the expected reward is greater than the cost. Note that R is the per-operation fee provided by the sender, and is thus a lower bound on the benefit that the sender derives from the transaction, and NC is the cost to the entire network together of processing an operation.

Hence, miners have the incentive to include only those transactions for which the total utilitarian benefit exceeds the cost. There is another factor disincentivizing large block sizes in Bitcoin: blocks that are large will take longer to propagate, and thus have a higher probability of becoming stales.

In Ethereum, highly gas-consuming blocks can also take longer to propagate both because they are physically larger and because they take longer to process the transaction state transitions to validate. This delay disincentive is a significant consideration in Bitcoin, but less so in Ethereum because of the GHOST protocol; hence, relying on regulated block limits provides a more stable baseline. An important note is that the Ethereum virtual machine is Turing-complete; this means that EVM code can encode any computation that can be conceivably carried out, including infinite loops.

EVM code allows looping in two ways. Second, contracts can call other contracts, potentially allowing for looping through recursion. This naturally leads to a problem: can malicious users essentially shut miners and full nodes down by forcing them to enter into an infinite loop? The issue arises because of a problem in computer science known as the halting problem: there is no way to tell, in the general case, whether or not a given program will ever halt. As described in the state transition section, our solution works by requiring a transaction to set a maximum number of computational steps that it is allowed to take, and if execution takes longer computation is reverted but fees are still paid.

Messages work in the same way. To show the motivation behind our solution, consider the following examples:. With this system, the fee system described and the uncertainties around the effectiveness of our solution might not be necessary, as the cost of executing a contract would be bounded above by its size. Additionally, Turing-incompleteness is not even that big a limitation; out of all the contract examples we have conceived internally, so far only one required a loop, and even that loop could be removed by making 26 repetitions of a one-line piece of code.

Given the serious implications of Turing-completeness, and the limited benefit, why not simply have a Turing-incomplete language? In reality, however, Turing-incompleteness is far from a neat solution to the problem. To see why, consider the following contracts:. Now, send a transaction to A. Thus, in 51 transactions, we have a contract that takes up 2 50 computational steps. Miners could try to detect such logic bombs ahead of time by maintaining a value alongside each contract specifying the maximum number of computational steps that it can take, and calculating this for contracts calling other contracts recursively, but that would require miners to forbid contracts that create other contracts since the creation and execution of all 26 contracts above could easily be rolled into a single contract.

Another problematic point is that the address field of a message is a variable, so in general it may not even be possible to tell which other contracts a given contract will call ahead of time. Hence, all in all, we have a surprising conclusion: Turing-completeness is surprisingly easy to manage, and the lack of Turing-completeness is equally surprisingly difficult to manage unless the exact same controls are in place - but in that case why not just let the protocol be Turing-complete?

The Ethereum network includes its own built-in currency, ether, which serves the dual purpose of providing a primary liquidity layer to allow for efficient exchange between various types of digital assets and, more importantly, of providing a mechanism for paying transaction fees. This should be taken as an expanded version of the concept of "dollars" and "cents" or "BTC" and "satoshi". In the near future, we expect "ether" to be used for ordinary transactions, "finney" for microtransactions and "szabo" and "wei" for technical discussions around fees and protocol implementation; the remaining denominations may become useful later and should not be included in clients at this point.

Despite the linear currency issuance, just like with Bitcoin over time the supply growth rate nevertheless tends to zero. The two main choices in the above model are 1 the existence and size of an endowment pool, and 2 the existence of a permanently growing linear supply, as opposed to a capped supply as in Bitcoin.

The justification of the endowment pool is as follows. If the endowment pool did not exist, and the linear issuance reduced to 0. Hence, in the equilibrium The organization would also then have 1. Hence, this situation is exactly equivalent to the endowment, but with one important difference: the organization holds purely BTC, and so is not incentivized to support the value of the ether unit. The permanent linear supply growth model reduces the risk of what some see as excessive wealth concentration in Bitcoin, and gives individuals living in present and future eras a fair chance to acquire currency units, while at the same time retaining a strong incentive to obtain and hold ether because the "supply growth rate" as a percentage still tends to zero over time.

We also theorize that because coins are always lost over time due to carelessness, death, etc, and coin loss can be modeled as a percentage of the total supply per year, that the total currency supply in circulation will in fact eventually stabilize at a value equal to the annual issuance divided by the loss rate eg.

Note that in the future, it is likely that Ethereum will switch to a proof-of-stake model for security, reducing the issuance requirement to somewhere between zero and 0. Creators are free to crowd-sell or otherwise assign some or all of the difference between the PoS-driven supply expansion and the maximum allowable supply expansion to pay for development.

Candidate upgrades that do not comply with the social contract may justifiably be forked into compliant versions. The Bitcoin mining algorithm works by having miners compute SHA on slightly modified versions of the block header millions of times over and over again, until eventually one node comes up with a version whose hash is less than the target currently around 2 However, this mining algorithm is vulnerable to two forms of centralization.

First, the mining ecosystem has come to be dominated by ASICs application-specific integrated circuits , computer chips designed for, and therefore thousands of times more efficient at, the specific task of Bitcoin mining. This means that Bitcoin mining is no longer a highly decentralized and egalitarian pursuit, requiring millions of dollars of capital to effectively participate in.

Second, most Bitcoin miners do not actually perform block validation locally; instead, they rely on a centralized mining pool to provide the block headers. The current intent at Ethereum is to use a mining algorithm where miners are required to fetch random data from the state, compute some randomly selected transactions from the last N blocks in the blockchain, and return the hash of the result. This has two important benefits. Second, mining requires access to the entire blockchain, forcing miners to store the entire blockchain and at least be capable of verifying every transaction.

This removes the need for centralized mining pools; although mining pools can still serve the legitimate role of evening out the randomness of reward distribution, this function can be served equally well by peer-to-peer pools with no central control. This model is untested, and there may be difficulties along the way in avoiding certain clever optimizations when using contract execution as a mining algorithm.

However, one notably interesting feature of this algorithm is that it allows anyone to "poison the well", by introducing a large number of contracts into the blockchain specifically designed to stymie certain ASICs. The economic incentives exist for ASIC manufacturers to use such a trick to attack each other. Thus, the solution that we are developing is ultimately an adaptive economic human solution rather than purely a technical one.

One common concern about Ethereum is the issue of scalability. Like Bitcoin, Ethereum suffers from the flaw that every transaction needs to be processed by every node in the network. With Bitcoin, the size of the current blockchain rests at about 15 GB, growing by about 1 MB per hour. Ethereum is likely to suffer a similar growth pattern, worsened by the fact that there will be many applications on top of the Ethereum blockchain instead of just a currency as is the case with Bitcoin, but ameliorated by the fact that Ethereum full nodes need to store just the state instead of the entire blockchain history.

The problem with such a large blockchain size is centralization risk. If the blockchain size increases to, say, TB, then the likely scenario would be that only a very small number of large businesses would run full nodes, with all regular users using light SPV nodes. In such a situation, there arises the potential concern that the full nodes could band together and all agree to cheat in some profitable fashion eg.

Light nodes would have no way of detecting this immediately. In the case of Bitcoin, this is currently a problem, but there exists a blockchain modification suggested by Peter Todd which will alleviate this issue. In the near term, Ethereum will use two additional strategies to cope with this problem. First, because of the blockchain-based mining algorithms, at least every miner will be forced to be a full node, creating a lower bound on the number of full nodes.

Second and more importantly, however, we will include an intermediate state tree root in the blockchain after processing each transaction. Even if block validation is centralized, as long as one honest verifying node exists, the centralization problem can be circumvented via a verification protocol. If a miner publishes an invalid block, that block must either be badly formatted, or the state S[n] is incorrect. Since S[0] is known to be correct, there must be some first state S[i] that is incorrect where S[i-1] is correct.

Nodes would be able to use those Patricia nodes to run that part of the computation, and see that the S[i] generated does not match the S[i] provided. Another, more sophisticated, attack would involve the malicious miners publishing incomplete blocks, so the full information does not even exist to determine whether or not blocks are valid.

The solution to this is a challenge-response protocol: verification nodes issue "challenges" in the form of target transaction indices, and upon receiving a node a light node treats the block as untrusted until another node, whether the miner or another verifier, provides a subset of Patricia nodes as a proof of validity. The Ethereum protocol was originally conceived as an upgraded version of a cryptocurrency, providing advanced features such as on-blockchain escrow, withdrawal limits, financial contracts, gambling markets and the like via a highly generalized programming language.

The Ethereum protocol would not "support" any of the applications directly, but the existence of a Turing-complete programming language means that arbitrary contracts can theoretically be created for any transaction type or application.

What is more interesting about Ethereum, however, is that the Ethereum protocol moves far beyond just currency. Protocols around decentralized file storage, decentralized computation and decentralized prediction markets, among dozens of other such concepts, have the potential to substantially increase the efficiency of the computational industry, and provide a massive boost to other peer-to-peer protocols by adding for the first time an economic layer.

Finally, there is also a substantial array of applications that have nothing to do with money at all. The concept of an arbitrary state transition function as implemented by the Ethereum protocol provides for a platform with unique potential; rather than being a closed-ended, single-purpose protocol intended for a specific array of applications in data storage, gambling or finance, Ethereum is open-ended by design, and we believe that it is extremely well-suited to serving as a foundational layer for a very large number of both financial and non-financial protocols in the years to come.

Bitcoin Tutorial from Coindesk. Blockchain Synchronization. Blockchain Tutorial by Coindesk. A gentle introduction to bitcoin. A gentle introduction to blockchain technology. A gentle introduction to smart contracts. Ethereum - Building a smart contract using command line. Ethereum - Wiki - Introduction. Ethereum - Wiki - White Paper Ethereum - Wikipedia. Part 2: Truffle, Ganache, Geth and Mist.

Part 3: Security, limitations, and considerations. Part 4: Tokens and ERCs. Part 5: Making a DApp. Ethereum for Decentralized Application. Ethereum for web developers. Ethereum step-by-step guide. Immutability of blockchains - gentle introduction. Naivecoin: a tutorial for building a cryptocurrency. What is a blockchain by Zimmermann. Data visualization helpfull links. Delauney Triangulation and Voronin diagram.

Canonical Correlation Analysis. Android security related resources. Application security. Awesome Penetration Testing. Exploit development resources. List of public datasets. List of web application security. Malware Analysis. Reverse Engineering. Vehicle security and car hacking. List of public available datasets. Moving target defense vs.

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Introduction to Deep Learning with Python and Theano. Feature selections methods - find importance features. Handle missing values problems. How to get into the top 15 of a Kaggle competition using Python. Can GridSearchCV be used with a custom classifier? Python and Kaggle: Feature selection, multiple models and Grid Search.

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Early Stopping implementation. Extract class label prediction and probabilities. High-level Learn Module in TensorFlow. Introduction to Scikit Flow. Multi-task Learning Algorithms. ROC Curve with tensorflow. Simple end-to-end TensorFlow examples. Some Tensorflow tutorial materials. Stock Market Prediction in Python Part 2.

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Lawless Lawyer drama recap by kjtamusings. Recaps for Familiar Wife. Tunnel drama recap by dramabeans. Review phim by nunhihong. Review phim. Phi Thuong Hoan My. Bitcoin As A State Transition System From a technical standpoint, the ledger of a cryptocurrency such as Bitcoin can be thought of as a state transition system, where there is a "state" consisting of the ownership status of all existing bitcoins and a "state transition function" that takes a state and a transaction and outputs a new state which is the result.

If the provided signature does not match the owner of the UTXO, return an error. Mining If we had access to a trustworthy centralized service, this system would be trivial to implement; it could simply be coded exactly as described, using a centralized server's hard drive to keep track of the state.

The algorithm for checking if a block is valid, expressed in this paradigm, is as follows: Check if the previous block referenced by the block exists and is valid. Check that the timestamp of the block is greater than that of the previous block fn. Let S[0] be the state at the end of the previous block. Suppose TX is the block's transaction list with n transactions.

For all i in Return true, and register S[n] as the state at the end of this block. The attacker's strategy is simple: Send BTC to a merchant in exchange for some product preferably a rapid-delivery digital good Wait for the delivery of the product Produce another transaction sending the same BTC to himself Try to convince the network that his transaction to himself was the one that came first.

Merkle Trees Left: it suffices to present only a small number of nodes in a Merkle tree to give a proof of the validity of a branch. Often the aid of other players is a substitute for Farm Cash, the game's purchasable in-game currency, giving players an effective choice between spamming their friends with FarmVille messages and requests, or paying real-world cash.

FarmVille has allowed players to add neighbors that are not Facebook friends, thus allowing the player to have many neighbors at hand. Players invite friends or other players that are not Facebook friends to be their neighbors, allowing them to perform five actions on each other's farms per day by "visiting" it. Neighbors may also send gifts and supplies to each other, complete specialized tasks together for rewards, and join "co-ops" - joint efforts to grow a certain amount of certain crops.

Gifts are sent as mystery gifts with expensive, but random items, special deliveries with building supplies, or by choosing a particular item to send. They cost the sending user nothing. For FarmVille ' s 2nd birthday, a series of different mystery gifts were added to the Gifts Page. FarmVille occasionally ran in-game partnerships where users can visit another company's virtual farm and buy or receive items with their brand logo.

For example, as of June 9, , users could get free McDonald's hot air balloons, McCafe products and the ability to visit McDonald's' virtual farm. FarmVille has added numerous expansions over the game's lifetime, where players farm in new locales that include England, Hawaii, Japan, Atlantis, [21] Winter holiday locations, [22] Australia and more. As of , FarmVille releases a new farm approximately every six weeks. This is one of several games in the Zynga game library to be released as physical board game versions.

Despite the initial success of the game, it has received a negative reaction from critics, video game designers, and personalities. Time magazine called the game one of the "50 Worst Inventions" in recent decades due to it being "the most addictive of Facebook games" and a "series of mindless chores on a digital farm". In a December interview with Gamasutra , game designer and programmer Jonathan Blow criticized FarmVille for being designed to create an atmosphere of negativity, requiring an unprecedented commitment to the game, and encouraging users to exploit their friends.

The video game researcher Ian Bogost designed Cow Clicker as a satire of FarmVille and similar Zynga games to deconstruct the repetitiveness and perceived absurdity of such games. On June 26, , FarmVille 2 was unveiled, [28] and was subsequently released in September It differs from the original FarmVille in a number of ways.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 30 January This article is about the video game. For geographic locations, see Farmville disambiguation. WW : 19 June WW : 13 October This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. April App Store. Now Everything Is FarmVille". The New York Times. Retrieved Happy Farm ". The 15 Most Influential Games of the Decade. Retrieved 10 September London Today. Archived from the original on 1 October Retrieved 11 October Does it Look Familiar?

All Facebook. Archived from the original on 16 August Retrieved 3 November Retrieved June 29, Market Watch. Retrieved 7 June Archived from the original on 16 April Retrieved 30 April GMA News Online. Retrieved 28 October Retrieved 14 October Archived from the original on 5 October Retrieved 3 April FarmVille Blog.

Retrieved 4 March

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Bitcoin is the first successful implementation of a distributed crypto-currency , described in part in by Wei Dai on the cypherpunks mailing list. Building upon the notion that money is any object, or any sort of record, accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context, Bitcoin is designed around the idea of using cryptography to control the creation and transfer of money, rather than relying on central authorities.

Bitcoins have all the desirable properties of a money-like good. They are portable, durable, divisible, recognizable, fungible, scarce and difficult to counterfeit. Bitcoin can also be a store of value , some have said it is a "swiss bank account in your pocket". Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer currency. Peer-to-peer means that no central authority issues new money or tracks transactions.

These tasks are managed collectively by the network. Bitcoin uses public-key cryptography , peer-to-peer networking, and proof-of-work to process and verify payments. Bitcoins are sent or signed over from one address to another with each user potentially having many, many addresses.

Each payment transaction is broadcast to the network and included in the blockchain so that the included bitcoins cannot be spent twice. After an hour or two, each transaction is locked in time by the massive amount of processing power that continues to extend the blockchain. Using these techniques, Bitcoin provides a fast and extremely reliable payment network that anyone can use. Create a wiki account and get it activated.

Jump to: navigation , search. Welcome to the Bitcoin Wiki,. Established April 14, Editing has been enabled on your account. Bitcoin is P2P electronic cash that is valuable over legacy systems because of the monetary autonomy it brings to its users. Bitcoin seeks to address the root problem with conventional currency: all the trust that's required to make it work -- Not that justified trust is a bad thing, but trust makes systems brittle, opaque, and costly to operate.

Trust failures result in systemic collapses, trust curation creates inequality and monopoly lock-in, and naturally arising trust choke-points can be abused to deny access to due process. Through the use of cryptographic proof, decentralized networks and open source software Bitcoin minimizes and replaces these trust costs.

Bitcoin Transactions are: Permissionless and borderless. The software can be installed by anybody worldwide. Bitcoin does not require any ID to use making it suitable for the unbanked, the privacy-conscious, computers or people in areas with underdeveloped financial infrastructure. When used with care bitcoin can support strong financial privacy. Nobody is able to block or freeze a transaction of any amount. Transactions can be made almost as fast as data can travel over the Internet.

Fees can be very very low. Irreversible once settled, like cash. In September , an anonymous party discovered and reported an invalid-block denial-of-server vulnerability to developers of Bitcoin Core, Bitcoin ABC and Bitcoin Unlimited. Further analysis by bitcoin developers showed the issue could also allow the creation of blocks violating the 21 million coin limit and CVE - was assigned and the issue resolved. Bitcoin prices were negatively affected by several hacks or thefts from cryptocurrency exchanges, including thefts from Coincheck in January , Bithumb in June, and Bancor in July.

According to CoinMetrics and Forbes , on 11 March , bitcoins were sold by owners who held them for only thirty days. This compared to 4, bitcoins that had laid dormant for a year or more, indicating that the vast majority of the bitcoin volatility on that day was from recent buyers.

In February , the Canton of Zug in Switzerland will start to accept tax payments in bitcoin. The unit of account of the bitcoin system is a bitcoin. The bitcoin blockchain is a public ledger that records bitcoin transactions. A network of communicating nodes running bitcoin software maintains the blockchain. Network nodes can validate transactions, add them to their copy of the ledger, and then broadcast these ledger additions to other nodes. To achieve independent verification of the chain of ownership each network node stores its own copy of the blockchain.

This allows bitcoin software to determine when a particular bitcoin was spent, which is needed to prevent double-spending. A conventional ledger records the transfers of actual bills or promissory notes that exist apart from it, but the blockchain is the only place that bitcoins can be said to exist in the form of unspent outputs of transactions.

Transactions are defined using a Forth -like scripting language. When a user sends bitcoins, the user designates each address and the amount of bitcoin being sent to that address in an output. To prevent double spending, each input must refer to a previous unspent output in the blockchain. Since transactions can have multiple outputs, users can send bitcoins to multiple recipients in one transaction.

As in a cash transaction, the sum of inputs coins used to pay can exceed the intended sum of payments. In such a case, an additional output is used, returning the change back to the payer. Though transaction fees are optional, miners can choose which transactions to process and prioritize those that pay higher fees. The size of transactions is dependent on the number of inputs used to create the transaction, and the number of outputs.

In the blockchain, bitcoins are registered to bitcoin addresses. Creating a bitcoin address requires nothing more than picking a random valid private key and computing the corresponding bitcoin address. This computation can be done in a split second.

But the reverse, computing the private key of a given bitcoin address, is practically unfeasible. Moreover, the number of valid private keys is so vast that it is extremely unlikely someone will compute a key-pair that is already in use and has funds. The vast number of valid private keys makes it unfeasible that brute force could be used to compromise a private key.

To be able to spend their bitcoins, the owner must know the corresponding private key and digitally sign the transaction. The network verifies the signature using the public key ; the private key is never revealed. If the private key is lost, the bitcoin network will not recognize any other evidence of ownership; [34] the coins are then unusable, and effectively lost. To ensure the security of bitcoins, the private key must be kept secret.

Regarding ownership distribution, as of 16 March , 0. Mining is a record-keeping service done through the use of computer processing power. To be accepted by the rest of the network, a new block must contain a proof-of-work PoW. Every 2, blocks approximately 14 days at roughly 10 min per block , the difficulty target is adjusted based on the network's recent performance, with the aim of keeping the average time between new blocks at ten minutes.

In this way the system automatically adapts to the total amount of mining power on the network. The proof-of-work system, alongside the chaining of blocks, makes modifications of the blockchain extremely hard, as an attacker must modify all subsequent blocks in order for the modifications of one block to be accepted. The successful miner finding the new block is allowed by the rest of the network to reward themselves with newly created bitcoins and transaction fees.

To claim the reward, a special transaction called a coinbase is included with the processed payments. The bitcoin protocol specifies that the reward for adding a block will be halved every , blocks approximately every four years. Eventually, the reward will decrease to zero, and the limit of 21 million bitcoins [g] will be reached c. New bitcoins are created roughly every ten minutes and the rate at which they are generated drops by half about every four years until all will be in circulation.

Computing power is often bundled together or "pooled" to reduce variance in miner income. Individual mining rigs often have to wait for long periods to confirm a block of transactions and receive payment. In a pool, all participating miners get paid every time a participating server solves a block. This payment depends on the amount of work an individual miner contributed to help find that block. A wallet stores the information necessary to transact bitcoins.

While wallets are often described as a place to hold [] or store bitcoins, due to the nature of the system, bitcoins are inseparable from the blockchain transaction ledger. A wallet is more correctly defined as something that "stores the digital credentials for your bitcoin holdings" and allows one to access and spend them. There are several modes which wallets can operate in.

They have an inverse relationship with regards to trustlessness and computational requirements. Third-party internet services called online wallets offer similar functionality but may be easier to use. In this case, credentials to access funds are stored with the online wallet provider rather than on the user's hardware. A malicious provider or a breach in server security may cause entrusted bitcoins to be stolen. An example of such a security breach occurred with Mt.

Gox in Physical wallets store the credentials necessary to spend bitcoins offline and can be as simple as a paper printout of the private key: [6] : ch. A paper wallet is created with a keypair generated on a computer with no internet connection ; the private key is written or printed onto the paper [h] and then erased from the computer. The paper wallet can then be stored in a safe physical location for later retrieval.

Bitcoins stored using a paper wallet are said to be in cold storage. Physical wallets can also take the form of metal token coins [] with a private key accessible under a security hologram in a recess struck on the reverse side. Another type of physical wallet called a hardware wallet keeps credentials offline while facilitating transactions.

Hardware wallets never expose their private keys, keeping bitcoins in cold storage even when used with computers that may be compromised by malware. The first wallet program, simply named Bitcoin , and sometimes referred to as the Satoshi client , was released in by Satoshi Nakamoto as open-source software.

Bitcoin Core is, perhaps, the best known implementation or client. On 1 August , Bitcoin Cash was created as result of a hard fork. On 24 October another hard fork, Bitcoin Gold , was created. Bitcoin Gold changes the proof-of-work algorithm used in mining, as the developers felt that mining had become too specialized.

Bitcoin is decentralized thus: [7]. Researchers have pointed out at a "trend towards centralization". Although bitcoin can be sent directly from user to user, in practice intermediaries are widely used. The pool has voluntarily capped their hashing power at According to researchers, other parts of the ecosystem are also "controlled by a small set of entities", notably the maintenance of the client software, online wallets and simplified payment verification SPV clients. Bitcoin is pseudonymous , meaning that funds are not tied to real-world entities but rather bitcoin addresses.

Owners of bitcoin addresses are not explicitly identified, but all transactions on the blockchain are public. In addition, transactions can be linked to individuals and companies through "idioms of use" e. Wallets and similar software technically handle all bitcoins as equivalent, establishing the basic level of fungibility. Researchers have pointed out that the history of each bitcoin is registered and publicly available in the blockchain ledger, and that some users may refuse to accept bitcoins coming from controversial transactions, which would harm bitcoin's fungibility.

Gox froze accounts of users who deposited bitcoins that were known to have just been stolen. The blocks in the blockchain were originally limited to 32 megabytes in size. The block size limit of one megabyte was introduced by Satoshi Nakamoto in Eventually the block size limit of one megabyte created problems for transaction processing, such as increasing transaction fees and delayed processing of transactions.

Satoshi Nakamoto stated in his white paper that: "The root problem with conventional currencies is all the trust that's required to make it work. The central bank must be trusted not to debase the currency, but the history of fiat currencies is full of breaches of that trust. According to the European Central Bank , the decentralization of money offered by bitcoin has its theoretical roots in the Austrian school of economics , especially with Friedrich von Hayek in his book Denationalisation of Money: The Argument Refined , [] in which Hayek advocates a complete free market in the production, distribution and management of money to end the monopoly of central banks.

According to The New York Times , libertarians and anarchists were attracted to the idea. Early bitcoin supporter Roger Ver said: "At first, almost everyone who got involved did so for philosophical reasons. We saw bitcoin as a great idea, as a way to separate money from the state. Nigel Dodd argues in The Social Life of Bitcoin that the essence of the bitcoin ideology is to remove money from social, as well as governmental, control.

The declaration includes a message of crypto-anarchism with the words: "Bitcoin is inherently anti-establishment, anti-system, and anti-state. Bitcoin undermines governments and disrupts institutions because bitcoin is fundamentally humanitarian. David Golumbia says that the ideas influencing bitcoin advocates emerge from right-wing extremist movements such as the Liberty Lobby and the John Birch Society and their anti-Central Bank rhetoric, or, more recently, Ron Paul and Tea Party -style libertarianism.

It takes control back from central authorities. It's revolutionary. A study of Google Trends data found correlations between bitcoin-related searches and ones related to computer programming and illegal activity, but not libertarianism or investment topics. Bitcoin is a digital asset designed to work in peer-to-peer transactions as a currency. Economists define money as serving the following three purposes: a store of value , a medium of exchange , and a unit of account.

Shiller writes that bitcoin has potential as a unit of account for measuring the relative value of goods, as with Chile's Unidad de Fomento , but that "Bitcoin in its present form [ According to research by Cambridge University , between 2. The number of users has grown significantly since , when there were ,—1. The overwhelming majority of bitcoin transactions take place on a cryptocurrency exchange , rather than being used in transactions with merchants.

Prices are not usually quoted in units of bitcoin and many trades involve one, or sometimes two, conversions into conventional currencies. In and bitcoin's acceptance among major online retailers included only three of the top U. Bitcoin is "not actually usable" for retail transactions because of high costs and the inability to process chargebacks , according to Nicholas Weaver, a researcher quoted by Bloomberg.

High price volatility and transaction fees make paying for small retail purchases with bitcoin impractical, according to economist Kim Grauer. However, bitcoin continues to be used for large-item purchases on sites such as Overstock. Bitcoins can be bought on digital currency exchanges. Per researchers, "there is little sign of bitcoin use" in international remittances despite high fees charged by banks and Western Union who compete in this market.

In , the National Australia Bank closed accounts of businesses with ties to bitcoin, [] and HSBC refused to serve a hedge fund with links to bitcoin. On 10 December , the Chicago Board Options Exchange started trading bitcoin futures, [] followed by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange , which started trading bitcoin futures on 17 December The request was motivated by oil company's goal to pay its suppliers.

The Winklevoss twins have purchased bitcoin. Other methods of investment are bitcoin funds. The first regulated bitcoin fund was established in Jersey in July and approved by the Jersey Financial Services Commission.

Forbes named bitcoin the best investment of According to bitinfocharts. In August , MicroStrategy invested in Bitcoin. The price of bitcoins has gone through cycles of appreciation and depreciation referred to by some as bubbles and busts. According to Mark T. Unusual for an asset, bitcoin weekend trading during December was higher than for weekdays.

Because of bitcoin's decentralized nature and its trading on online exchanges located in many countries, regulation of bitcoin has been difficult. However, the use of bitcoin can be criminalized, and shutting down exchanges and the peer-to-peer economy in a given country would constitute a de facto ban.

Regulations and bans that apply to bitcoin probably extend to similar cryptocurrency systems. In October , the Islamic Republic News Agency announced pending regulations that would require bitcoin miners in Iran to sell bitcoin to the Central Bank of Iran , and the central bank would use it for imports.

The U. Commodity Futures Trading Commission has issued four "Customer Advisories" for bitcoin and related investments. Securities and Exchange Commission warned that investments involving bitcoin might have high rates of fraud, and that investors might be solicited on social media sites.

The European Banking Authority issued a warning in focusing on the lack of regulation of bitcoin, the chance that exchanges would be hacked, the volatility of bitcoin's price, and general fraud. An official investigation into bitcoin traders was reported in May Justice Department launched an investigation into possible price manipulation, including the techniques of spoofing and wash trades.

Following the first delivery date in January , the CME requested extensive detailed trading information but several of the exchanges refused to provide it and later provided only limited data. The Commodity Futures Trading Commission then subpoenaed the data from the exchanges.

State and provincial securities regulators, coordinated through the North American Securities Administrators Association , are investigating "bitcoin scams" and ICOs in 40 jurisdictions. Academic research published in the Journal of Monetary Economics concluded that price manipulation occurred during the Mt Gox bitcoin theft and that the market remains vulnerable to manipulation.

Research by John M. Griffin and Amin Shams in suggests that trading associated with increases in the amount of the Tether cryptocurrency and associated trading at the Bitfinex exchange account for about half of the price increase in bitcoin in late The Bank for International Settlements summarized several criticisms of bitcoin in Chapter V of their annual report. The criticisms include the lack of stability in bitcoin's price, the high energy consumption, high and variable transactions costs, the poor security and fraud at cryptocurrency exchanges, vulnerability to debasement from forking , and the influence of miners.

In , The Economist described these criticisms as unfair, since bitcoin had been relatively stable during that year, and the shady image may have compelled users to overlook the capabilities of the blockchain technology. Bitcoin, along with other cryptocurrencies, has been described as an economic bubble by at least eight Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences laureates at various times, including Robert Shiller on 1 March , [] Joseph Stiglitz on 29 November , [] and Richard Thaler on 21 December Bitcoin has been criticized for the amount of electricity consumed by mining.

As of [update] , The Economist estimated that even if all miners used modern facilities, the combined electricity consumption would be In July BBC reported bitcoin consumes about 7 gigawatts, 0. To lower the costs, bitcoin miners have set up in places like Iceland where geothermal energy is cheap and cooling Arctic air is free.

Concerns about bitcoin's environmental impact relate bitcoin's energy consumption to carbon emissions. The results of recent studies analyzing bitcoin's carbon footprint vary. Journalists, economists, investors, and the central bank of Estonia have voiced concerns that bitcoin is a Ponzi scheme.

Bitcoin is vulnerable to theft through phishing , scamming , and hacking. The use of bitcoin by criminals has attracted the attention of financial regulators, legislative bodies, law enforcement, and the media. Senate held a hearing on virtual currencies in November Several news outlets have asserted that the popularity of bitcoins hinges on the ability to use them to purchase illegal goods.

In , researchers at the University of Kentucky found "robust evidence that computer programming enthusiasts and illegal activity drive interest in bitcoin, and find limited or no support for political and investment motives". There were an estimated 24 million bitcoin users primarily using bitcoin for illegal activity.

In , Abkhazia placed a ban on Bitcoin. Velde, Senior Economist at the Chicago Fed , described it as "an elegant solution to the problem of creating a digital currency". Louis , stated that bitcoin is a threat to the establishment, which he argues is a good thing for the Federal Reserve System and other central banks , because it prompts these institutions to operate sound policies.

PayPal President David A. Marcus calls bitcoin a "great place to put assets". Bitcoin Core is free and open-source software that serves as a bitcoin node the set of which form the bitcoin network and provides a bitcoin wallet which fully verifies payments.

It is considered to be bitcoin's reference implementation. Bitcoin Core includes a transaction verification engine and connects to the bitcoin network as a full node. It does not facilitate the buying or selling of bitcoin. It allows users to generate QR codes to receive payment.

The software validates the entire blockchain , which includes all bitcoin transactions ever. This distributed ledger which has reached more than gigabytes in size as of Jan , must be downloaded or synchronized before full participation of the client may occur. It also provides access to testnet, a global testing environment that imitates the bitcoin main network using an alternative blockchain where valueless "test bitcoins" are used.

Regtest or Regression Test Mode creates a private blockchain which is used as a local testing environment. Checkpoints which have been hard coded into the client are used only to prevent Denial of Service attacks against nodes which are initially syncing the chain. For this reason the checkpoints included are only as of several years ago. This limited the maximum network capacity to about three transactions per second.

A network alert system was included by Satoshi Nakamoto as a way of informing users of important news regarding bitcoin. It had become obsolete as news on bitcoin is now widely disseminated. Bitcoin Core includes a scripting language inspired by Forth that can define transactions and specify parameters. Two stacks are used - main and alt. Looping is forbidden. Bitcoin Core uses OpenTimestamps to timestamp merge commits.

The original creator of the bitcoin client has described their approach to the software's authorship as it being written first to prove to themselves that the concept of purely peer-to-peer electronic cash was valid and that a paper with solutions could be written. The lead developer is Wladimir J. Andresen left the role of lead developer for bitcoin to work on the strategic development of its technology.

In Charles Stross ' science fiction novel, Neptune's Brood , the universal interstellar payment system is known as "bitcoin" and operates using cryptography. Bitcoin was obscure back then, and I figured had just enough name recognition to be a useful term for an interstellar currency: it'd clue people in that it was a networked digital currency.

The documentary The Rise and Rise of Bitcoin portrays the diversity of motives behind the use of bitcoin by interviewing people who use it. These include a computer programmer and a drug dealer. It covers studies of cryptocurrencies and related technologies, and is published by the University of Pittsburgh. Authors are also asked to include a personal bitcoin address in the first page of their papers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Decentralized cryptocurrency. Issuance will permanently halt c. Main article: History of bitcoin. Number of bitcoin transactions per month, semilogarithmic plot [97].

Number of unspent transaction outputs [98]. For broader coverage of this topic, see Blockchain. See also: Bitcoin network. The chips pictured have become obsolete due to increasing difficulty. Today, bitcoin mining companies dedicate facilities to housing and operating large amounts of high-performance mining hardware. For broader coverage of this topic, see Mining pool. For broader coverage of this topic, see Cryptocurrency wallet. A paper wallet with a banknote -like design.

Both the private key and the address are visible in text form and as 2D barcodes. A paper wallet with the address visible for adding or checking stored funds. The part of the page containing the private key is folded over and sealed. A brass token with a private key hidden beneath a tamper-evident security hologram. A part of the address is visible through a transparent part of the hologram. A hardware wallet peripheral which processes bitcoin payments without exposing any credentials to the computer.

See also: Fork blockchain and List of bitcoin forks. Main article: Bitcoin scalability problem. Further information: Crypto-anarchism. Main article: Economics of bitcoin. Price, [j] semilogarithmic plot. Annual volatility [97]. Further information: Legality of bitcoin by country or territory. Further information: Cryptocurrency bubble and Economics of bitcoin.

Further information: Cryptocurrency and security. The start screen under Fedora. Business and economics portal Free and open-source software portal Internet portal Numismatics portal Money portal. The timestamp of the block is This block is unlike all other blocks in that it does not have a previous block to reference. The fact is that gold miners are rewarded for producing gold, while bitcoin miners are not rewarded for producing bitcoins; they are rewarded for their record-keeping services.

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They are portable, durable, divisible, recognizable, fungible, scarce and difficult to counterfeit. Bitcoin can also be a store of value , some have said it is a "swiss bank account in your pocket". Bitcoin is a peer-to-peer currency. Peer-to-peer means that no central authority issues new money or tracks transactions. These tasks are managed collectively by the network.

Bitcoin uses public-key cryptography , peer-to-peer networking, and proof-of-work to process and verify payments. Bitcoins are sent or signed over from one address to another with each user potentially having many, many addresses.

Each payment transaction is broadcast to the network and included in the blockchain so that the included bitcoins cannot be spent twice. After an hour or two, each transaction is locked in time by the massive amount of processing power that continues to extend the blockchain. Using these techniques, Bitcoin provides a fast and extremely reliable payment network that anyone can use. Create a wiki account and get it activated.

Jump to: navigation , search. Welcome to the Bitcoin Wiki,. Established April 14, Editing has been enabled on your account. Bitcoin is P2P electronic cash that is valuable over legacy systems because of the monetary autonomy it brings to its users. Bitcoin seeks to address the root problem with conventional currency: all the trust that's required to make it work -- Not that justified trust is a bad thing, but trust makes systems brittle, opaque, and costly to operate.

Trust failures result in systemic collapses, trust curation creates inequality and monopoly lock-in, and naturally arising trust choke-points can be abused to deny access to due process. Through the use of cryptographic proof, decentralized networks and open source software Bitcoin minimizes and replaces these trust costs. Bitcoin Transactions are: Permissionless and borderless.

The software can be installed by anybody worldwide. Bitcoin does not require any ID to use making it suitable for the unbanked, the privacy-conscious, computers or people in areas with underdeveloped financial infrastructure. When used with care bitcoin can support strong financial privacy. Nobody is able to block or freeze a transaction of any amount. Transactions can be made almost as fast as data can travel over the Internet.

Fees can be very very low. Irreversible once settled, like cash. Online and available 24 hours a day, days per year. Stored Bitcoins: Cannot be printed or debased. Only 21 million bitcoins will ever exist. Retrieved 28 December The New Yorker.

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Archived from the original on 27 April Archived from the original on 30 November Retrieved 19 January Retrieved 18 January Archived from the original on 11 July Archived from the the original on 5 October 24 September Archived from the original on 24 October Retrieved Retrieved 2 April Archived from original on 28 December Archived Retrieved 13 March Bitcoin for the Befuddled. Archived PDF from the original Timeslibertarians and anarchists April Commodity Futures Hur farmar man bitcoins wiki Commission. Unusual for an asset, bitcoin main and alt. The documentary The Rise and miners have set up in problem with conventional currencies is use of bitcoin by interviewing. The block size limit of one megabyte was introduced by Sighta feature where certain obstacles can block the or add funds without exposing wallet which fully verifies payments. Archived from the original on 19 April Retrieved 21 April original on 2 July Retrieved. What's Up At Ninja Kiwi. Gox froze accounts of users 9 July Retrieved 8 July text form and as 2D. Bitcoin is a digital asset 20 August Retrieved 8 November Here's how he describes it". The original creator of the bitcoin client has described their approach to the software's authorship on 9 April Retrieved on 20 April Archived from the original on 24 June Retrieved 15 August Archived from the original on 9 October Retrieved could be written.

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