His field of expertise includes the modern history of Japan, and international relations and politics in East Asia and the Pacific. The origin of the name was received with mixed responses, due to its Japanese, rather then Chinese classical literature origin. What conclusion can we form about the previous era that leads us to the pursuit of peace through order?
It comes as no surprise that after a long period filled with political and economic instability, the Japanese long for a stability here to stay, which would require order in both of these spheres. But Japan was not alone in these hardships — Hungary was also. Your Excellency, originally you are a historian, so you are in a unique position to assess the role Japan has been playing in Asia in the past years.
For many years, Japan was seen as a major threat and an envied economic model. How much did it change, and for better or worse, during the Heisei Era? Up until the beginning of Heisei Era in the early 90s, Japan experienced dynamic economic growth and was a regional leader in terms of economy. Alas, Japan reached a point of stagnation and the economic growth of neighbouring countries started to accelerate.
As a consequence, Japan lost its unique position as a leading global powerhouse, however, it still remains one of the major players in the region, and even globally. And how would you describe the bilateral relations during. How did the Japanese partners receive the democratisation of Hungary? During this period, Japan supported and provided advice in different areas of economic transition. As Hungary transitioned into a democracy, Japan soon realised that the Eastern European market would grow and there were more opportunities to be introduced and potential to develop.
Hungary was seen as a good trade partner and also a country that could benefit from foreign direct investment. In fact, several Japanese companies decided to set up manufacturing plants in Hungary, such as Suzuki. What were the attitudes of the Japanese governments toward the group in these early years? Have these changed over time? The four Visegrad Countries have become a valuable and important partner over time for Japan. As the V4 countries have become the regional powerhouse and engine of the European economy, there has been an increase in the number of Japanese companies setting up plants and businesses in Hungary.
There are constant and robust high-level discussions between the Visegrad Group and Japan, helping to maintain the ongoing strong and close relationship between the countries. In a period of uncertainty and dramatic change, what was it like serving at the embassy? Japan has always had high regard and recognition for Hungary, especially in its culture and arts. However, as a post-communist economy, it was a common assumption that Hungary might not be as advanced compared to other countries.
During this period of dramatic change, the main focus and task of Hungary was to change the mind-set and perspective about Hungary in the eyes of foreign nations. Building a brand new image of the country that showcases a confident and reliable European nation was of paramount importance. Singapore, just like many other countries in the region, has a complicated history with Japan. Can you elaborate on the historical relations between the two? Bitter memories born during the Japanese occupation are yet to be forgotten by the Singaporeans, however, with the Declaration of.
As Prime Minister Antall was pursuing the expansion of foreign relations, the Visegrad Group, a cultural and political alliance of Hungary, Poland, and Czechoslovakia was formed to enhance. The main mission of the office is to promote business exchange activities between the two countries. Independence, the general attitude of the country leadership has morphed considerably.
The bitter memories faded over time and now Japan is an important partner of Singapore. Nowadays, both countries are enjoying a good and friendly relationship. In your professional point of view, and your experience, what might be the reason for countries that engaged with Japan under the World War II have different tone in relations towards Japan?
Why is Singapore different from China or South Korea? The duration and the brutality of the Japanese treatment received by China and Korea were considerably longer and harsher as compared to the South East Asian nations. The wounds that were inflicted were deeper and the countries, therefore, have different attitudes towards Japan.
Singapore is considered a pragmatic country and it is more focused on the present and the future. The Hungarian government has emphasized this point on many occasions, drawing attention to the need to create and explore more possibilities rather than focusing only on EU countries. Compared to Japan, does Hungary have different foreign policy goals with Singapore?
Is there any similarity? Our foreign policy for Japan and Singapore runs on quite a similar course line, as there are many similarities between the two countries. Although the size and scale of the Singaporean economic market are much smaller, it is a very demanding market with high expectations, much like Japan, which is quite important for Hungary to consider.
How could you describe the importance of strengthening and amplifying relations in Asia? There is a reason why Japan has been a source of inspiration and admiration for so many in the developing world. If one seeks to capture the most distinctive feature of Japanese civilisation, it is likely to be its incredible skill to renew itself and embark on a course radically different than before.
From the Meiji Restoration of the late 19th century to the postwar democratic transformation, Japan has shown itself ready and willing to change—without sacrificing any of its unique characteristics. This latter was amply justified by the fate of other Asian powers, which either came within informal Chinese orbit or fell prey to Western imperialism, as China itself did.
The paramount importance of maintaining such a balance required the freezing of social mobility, a ban on Western cultural import, and the dominance of the warring caste—the samurai—in society. Christianity, especially the Order of Jesus already firmly present on the Asian mainland, was banned, and believers were tortured and executed. The most important of them was the Dutch merchant colony on the island of Dejima, the goods and news it carried, and the scientific knowledge it passed on.
The result of this mentality was the curious duality that Japan was the second most isolated country in Asia with the widest knowledge about the non-Asian world in stock. Academics have debated why Japan was particularly successful in the late 19th century modernisation scramble—a contest which even many European nations failed—while most of Asia could not catch up. An already existing Western knowledge, carefully filtered and controlled but still present, was undoubtedly helpful.
For the Japanese who always looked on China as the centre of civilisation, it was easier to look elsewhere for inspiration than for the Chinese themselves who would have had to give up cornerstones of their identity in pursuit of Western knowledge. Timing was also different: by the time. By , one part of the Japanese elite had already prepared for such an encounter; moreover, they promoted the opening of the country.
The struggle was further deepened by the death of the emperor and the accession of his son Mutsuhito posthumously called Meiji to the throne. This latter was so important that certain scholars describe Tokugawa Japan as a loose coalition of states—as opposed to the unitary Japan emerging from the civil strife.
For inspiration, the Japanese court hired foreigners to share their know-how in medicine, law, governance, military affairs, and even culture. As time went on, Prussian influence became paramount, especially in the army, once Jacob Mecken had reformed its training after the Prussian model. So were the new patterns of industry.
By the final decade of the century, the fact that Japan had became a modern, prosperous, industrial nation was undeniable. The Meiji elite was still fearful of losing ground and sinking into a Western semi-colonial state. With those ideas in mind, coupled with an increasing population and self-esteem of the people, Japan was set on an Asian expansion. The Meiji elite, in turn, was faced with the question of what type of internationalism they should take on. It has often been suggested that Japanese imperialism was a derivation of resourcehunger in an island environment lacking the necessary resources to feed a rapidly growing industry.
Even though that played a role, a closer look also points to the fact that early acquisitions, such as Korea and Taiwan, were not that resource-rich either. Japan, as a country still in semi-colonial status, wished to gain complete independence from European domination by self-strengthening and success. Yet another turning point came with the Russo-Japanese War of —, which brought about a whole new dimension of Japanese power.
It seemed that expansion was the key to success—the challenge became identifying the ideal means to expand. There were those who promoted economic expansion in a southward direction, the control of sea routes in the South China Sea, and peaceful engagement with Southeast Asia. For such a move, a navy was essential. There were others who considered a northern route more apt with Korea, Manchuria, The latter group focused on military occupation and power politics and wished to rely on astrong army.
In these years, everyone in the less-developed world wished to emulate, or, at least, relate to Nippon11—even in distant. Hungary, the idea of mysterious family ties between the two peoples gained currency. Not only were the Japanese pressured to renounce gains in the Treaty of Port Arthur after defeating Russia, but they could not capitalise on their pro-Entente policies in World War I either.
Furthermore, the utmost aim of Japanese diplomacy at Versailles—the adoption of a racial equality clause that recognises Japan to be on par with European nations—was also defeated. The Manchurian Incident ushered in a new era where it was no longer the court or the Diet but the army to decide policy in the Japanese Empire.
The mass brutalisation of people after the taking of Nanjing in was perhaps the most infamous episode in the history of Japanese imperialism. In the final phase, when metropolitan countries became more and more immersed in a European quagmire, the penetration into European colonial domains also started.
War II. The capture of most of Southeast Asia and the occupation of Singapore—a remarkable military feat— represented the apex of the Japanese Empire. American forces were, however, able to gain more and more territory from this empire from to Shortly after the collapse of the Axis Powers in Europe, the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August facilitated an unconditional Japanese surrender.
Japan had lost its empire and experienced utter defeat. Contrary to widespread assumptions about last-ditch Japanese fanaticism, Japanese peace feelers were present in , but, ultimately, to no avail. The Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, or SCAP—the high authority of the occupation— first implemented strict measures, but as the Cold War installed, they decided to be more lenient in order to facilitate renewal. In the maelstrom of war defeat and moral bankruptcy, the Japanese elite was able to reshape itself and the state in a democratic yet conservative fashion.
The military was disarmed and deprived of political influence by the constitution, the industrial—military houses of zaibatsu were fractured, and new democratic processes were established. A central authority needed to be re-established, people to be reassured, institutions to be set up. One day after the peace treaty, a bilateral security agreement with the US was also signed, according to which American forces continued to be responsible for the security of Japan—and enjoy unrestricted use of facilities.
The disarmament of the Japanese armed forces ensued, as the Japanese constitution renounced the right to initiate war as such. Its growth was based on the relative intactness of certain branches of industry, worldwide demand, a homeward turn, and measures of fiscal restraint. They had shown a path for neighbouring Asian nations— most importantly, Singapore and the Republic of Korea—and even Eastern Bloc countries were racing to get a better share of the Japanese market.
By the early s, Japan was irreversibly a middle-class country with a peace agenda and a nation state without imperialistic ambitions. Economic success substituted military prowess as the primary source of pride for the nation. This setup changed in with the double shocks launched by the Nixon Administration of the US. The first shock was the American decision to let loose the Bretton Woods system—a financial decision of which the most harmful effects needed to be absorbed by US allies like Japan.
The second shock was the Sino-American rapprochement. Despite Japanese fears of a downturn in US—Japan relations, the opening to China did not lead to the feared nightmarish situation, as the Americans were likewise fearful of a pro-Soviet turn in Japan. However, some have pointed out that the American engagement with Japan has always been strategic, while with China it has been tactical. In fact, the s saw a rising fear of Japanese power in the US. Even though, in the mids, some measures were taken in the US against the.
Japanese automobile industry, it never ceased to be a cause for concern. Japan thus arrived at the end of the Cold War as a strong and prosperous nation state, eager to play a more important role in the international sphere. Japan has since seen ups and downs in both politics and economy.
This collapse, in turn, dragged a degree of political stability down with it. Recovery was underway, but the soaring numbers of the Japanese economy and the respectful consistency of Japanese politics did not truly recover for quite some time. Others have pointed to deeper structural problems that derail development: the alarming demographic situation and the closed nature of Japanese culture that makes immigration virtually non-existent.
Not that the country is not among the richest and most successful on Earth, but its dynamism has now long been lost. One thing is for sure: if there is a country that has been the most successful in taking different roads, it is Japan.
Guoqi Xu: Asia. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Memoranda for the President: Japanese Feelers. Although, at first glance, these features seem like marginal trivia, they all came to define his premiership in one way or another. Being an avid supporter of the US—Japan Security Alliance, it was under his premiership when the security treaty was realised, which prompted considerable opposition from the public in the form of demonstrations.
Being the grandson of such an unpopular Prime Minister, however, can make everyday politics difficult for him. Nakasone is considered. Upon the merger, the LDP became such a powerhouse in Japanese politics that its rule was unbroken up until The secret of its success is threefold.
First, the postwar economic recovery, technological. The main cause of their low persuasive force is the lack of ideological framework and a strategy that simply builds on defying the Liberal Democratic Party. However, these alone are not engaging enough for the general public. These three causes are, of course, only a part of the whole picture, as the LDP has had time to build an intricate political machinery that employs financial support groups and an exclusive bureaucratic and business network that the opposition is cut off from.
This period made the voters lose their trust in the LDP—which had been the only party ruling at this point since World War II except one incident when the Democratic Party of Japan took the wheel for a short while. In , the entry of the strong-willed, maverick Prime Minister Koizumi gave entry to Abe too, this time as chief cabinet secretary.
Unfortunately, the Koizumi cabinet turned away from North Korea diplomatically; therefore, the solution was not found, but Abe became a flagship supporter of the cause. In , he was elected prime minister for the first time, and he won by building his campaign on the above-mentioned North Korean abductions. His first premiership was very different from his current one and even controversial in many points.
Controversial—or mistaken—as several of his missteps caused him to leave his office almost exactly one year after his inauguration. Such missteps were the promotion of policies echoed by far-right groups: patriotic education particularly assisting history books with toned down versions of World War II atrocities committed by the Empire of Japan , hostile attitudes towards China and the Koreas about the comfort women issue viz.
Soon after the defeat, citing health problems as the reason, Abe resigned. His first term as prime minister re-established the leadership deficit right up until Abe seemingly learned his lessons about the sentiments of the voter base and developed a completely different campaign strategy and policy profile to match the needs of the general public. Abe understood that without solving the problem of the two-decade-long, deepening recession, Japan could not represent its interests in the international community and keep its ranking both economically and politically.
But the general image about Abe being a hawkish nationalist has not faded. Before becoming prime minister for the first time, he published a book written by him, Towards a Beautiful Country. My Vision for Japan. He also expresses his positive views about nationalist programmes that he promoted during his first term, which also contributed to negative perceptions of him.
In the heavily pacifist and. During the Iraqi War — , for example, due to the strict regulations on its scope of action, Japan could only participate by sending unarmed troops to at least help with infrastructural tasks.
However, these troops ended up being a burden on the regulars, as they also needed protection. Around the time Prime Minister Koizumi was the head of state, North Korean adversity was on the rise. The expanding weapons arsenal and military capacities of North Korea and the strengthening hostile attitudes towards Japan posed a question to the leaders of the country: What to do in the event of an attack?
Imagining a possible clash was not a delusional concept anymore when North Korea started to regularise nuclear tests. And PM Abe is painfully aware of that. Abe stated in his book that he welcomes nationalist ideas but it is necessary to mould them to the current sentiments of the international arena.
This pragmatic thinking proved to be applicable in multiple issues. Take the controversy around the Yasukuni Shrine. Although he and his family are Roman Catholics, this did not pose an obstacle to his political career, as he has been around in the mainstream since Moreover, once, he even applauded the Nazi method of amending a constitution.
His experiences as prime minister during the — global financial crisis provided him with a fixed position as a finance minister when Abe took the wheel in He now leads a large party faction, with around 60 members under him.
He does send offering every once in a while, but this. The same can be said about the military-related issue too. As much as Japan is being criticised by the United Nations for the lack of contributions, regional voices are bashing the country for its unofficial army, the Self-Defense Forces. Growing regional tensions are channelled towards the notion of constitutional amendment. While Abe sees the amendment as an optimal solution, it is not so simple to execute.
First, the ruling party has to have a two-thirds majority in both houses of the Diet which it has had since , and then, the government has to conduct a national referendum with a simple majority reinforcing. While Suga usually draws less. That is why timing is very important in initiating a referendum, which has prompted Abe to work up both his popularity and the government support rates in the past couple of years.
Reaching higher support is definitely a great challenge because money-related scandals have hit his popularity a few times, the most infamous of them being the Moritomo Gakuen and the Kake Gakuen scandal in Abe definitely could not maintain his position without Suga nurturing his public image. He does not have any policy preferences, but he is a master of balancing the cabinet and harmonising the administration, all the while aspiring to carry out structural reforms. Yasukuni Shrine visits, or the lack of them are all controlled by him, which makes Suga the powerhouse of the Abe administration.
Once again, being experienced is an important point, which is why the curtain has closed in front of the opposition. Following this year, the Olympics will also be sure to pack on the to-do list and prevent the leading party from concentrating on such a complex procedure.
As relations with South Korea seem to sour, and the World War II peace accord with Russia is still out of the question, Abe leaves behind a mixed legacy. However, it is undeniable that these matters are harder to solve than it seems at first glance and as Japan is barely out of recession, and it is in a demographic turmoil, the Japanese political scene has to produce a competent heir akin to Abe—but at least one that can hold the power and can bring about stability for the Japanese people.
History, Politics, and Social Change since the s. BBC News. The museum offers information, objects, and artefacts of the wars Japan has taken part in since the construction of Yasukuni. Several different civic groups and small political parties have been formed around the ideology in the Heisei Era that have considerable influence on the political spheres but less impact on the voters themselves. The Japan Times. The very concepts of geopolitics and evolution may, however, serve as reminders of broader horizons.
When asked about the foreign policy legacy of the Heisei Era, his assessment was that the Heisei Era had no particular foreign policy legacy of its own. While the response may sound somewhat startling from someone whose career included jobs instrumental in shaping such a legacy, its potential readings are instructive for a variety of reasons. For one, let us have a cursory look at the March foreign and security policy headlines of. There are also other reasons why restricting attention to the three decades of Heisei may be misleading.
In this sense, Mr Fujisaki was only hinting at the fact that historical time tends to be perceived in Japan on a different scale. In Japan, change is predisposed to perpetuate the business of primordial continuity. What this means in practice has recently been on visual display to the world when Reiwa, the name for the new era that began on 1 May, was announced by Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga on 1 April. The interstate relations within the region—a primeval civilisational complex and a geopolitical arena in its own right—are among the oldest on the globe and are treated as such by the states involved.
But how to define the region? According to American forecasts, the share of six Southeast Asian countries in the global GDP may be more than twice that of the European Union by , while the labour force of the ten ASEAN countries is predicted to grow by 11, workers per day in the coming 15 years. It is still another question whether Japan is part of Asia.
By conventional geography, the answer may seem straightforward, but, when it comes to Japanese identity, the answer is much less affirmative. As a result, Japan has mostly found itself between all possible worlds, those of Asia and of the West included. However, the regional demarcations of these concepts, and those of the subunits ranging between an all-inclusive Asia and its China—Japan—Korea core, are widely variable. While it has had high expectations and zenith points, it has also experienced decline.
In terms of trade volume, China has tripled that of Japan. One could cite related details on end, population trends included. Given the nature of lateral pressure, the script of relative shrinking applies also to the long-time extra regional hegemon, the United States.
That is our responsibility… No new concept should ever be necessary … it is an alliance that cherishes our shared values of the rule of law, respect for human rights and freedom… Let the two of us, America and Japan, join our hands together and do our best to make the world a better, a much better, place to live. Alliance of hope—together, we can make [a] difference.
To some extent, this cannot be endogenously achieved; therefore, external countervailing actors may prove to be indispensable for a geopolitical, even evolutionary, rebalance. Adelphi Paper Palgrave Macmillan, Minister of Japan and His Cabinet. If nothing else, the theatrical exchange shows how the US—Japan alliance has evolved to adapt not only to a changing security environment and operational challenges but also to the changing patterns of international politics in the age of diplomacy tailored to fit the paradigms of social networks.
However, this symbolic and amicable moment does not reflect the social and political strains of hosting American troops in Japan, a sensitive issue, especially in Okinawa Prefecture, where most of the United States Forces in Japan USFJ are stationed.
The dynamic of the alliance can be captured in this duality. In a geopolitical sense, it is a mutually beneficial arrangement. Geostrategic incentives are clear. Japan provides the US with a forward military presence in the Western Pacific, a clear strategic necessity if Washington wishes to carry on the long geopolitical tradition of controlling crucial choke points of global sea lines of communication.
However, in terms of domestic politics and local issues, the bilateral security cooperation comes at a price. Some dissatisfaction has gone hand in hand with most milestones of the security cooperation first established by the Security Treaty Between the United States and Japan in The revision of the Treaty in was followed by significant civil protests after the Japanese Diet had voted on its ratification. Social and political issues can be illustrated by two major developments in Japan.
Second, the problem of USFJ military installations in Okinawa has become a major theme in general election campaigns and was a major political issue in The latter issue seems to have followed a trajectory whereby it rose to the level of national political debates in the s, but has since returned to the level of a local issue in the last few years. The Alliance also saw changes in the doctrinal background of the Japan—US cooperation, as well as some shifts in the composition of the military assets of the USFJ.
With consecutive revisions of the Security Cooperation Guidelines, operational and doctrinal cooperation had significantly deepened between the two militaries. While at the beginning of the Heisei Era the USFJ went through some minor decrease in capabilities, by the middle of the period—in the s—this had trend reversed, and Japan today is host to one of the largest US overseas military contingents.
Taking stock of the Alliance, the US military presence, and the security cooperation at the final days of Heisei, we see an arch of overall positive development. While problematic issues have certainly put a strain on the alliance regarding its sociopolitical dimension, the security cooperation aspect and the whole American military presence have come to be footed on more solid foundations than during the somewhat uncertain initial post-cold war years.
One such issue was that expectations increased from the US and even from the international community on Japan to shoulder the burden of global security more actively. Even with this substantial. While the specific political arguments and negotiations are beyond the scope of this paper, it should be mentioned that each further easing of restrictions was followed by a heated debate and usually came with substantial short-term repercussions in terms of the public political support for the given administration.
Nevertheless, after the s, Japanese lawmakers made possible an ever-increasing operational participation for Jietai troops dispatched abroad. This process culminated in a package of new security and defence-related laws that were approved in and came into effect in This change opened the possibility for Jietai troops to protect allied assets that came under attack even if they themselves did not.
The first mission—more symbolic than operationally necessary—carried out under these doctrinal changes came on 1 May , when Japanese helicopter carrier Izumo DDH and destroyer Sasanagi DD escorted an American military transport on its cruise through the Western Pacific. While not. The Japanese public had been weary—to say the least—of the USFJ force concentration in Okinawa since the beginning of the postwar alliance structure,6 but the issue took priority on a national political debate in the campaign leading up to the Lower House general elections.
Hatoyama and the DPJ won the election in , but, like in the case of many of their structural promises, he found that he could not carry out the relocation plan. It seems that Futenma—and, more broadly, the US military presence in Okinawa— which was elevated to a level of a major national policy issue in , returned to a local level in the final days of the Heisei Era. The doctrinal progress of closer cooperation has been recorded by the consecutive guidelines on security cooperation adopted by the two sides, first in , then in , and most recently in The first version, in , mainly set down existing practices of defence planning and cooperation, without much focus beyond the territorial defence of Japan.
Only its last paragraph mentioned some possible areas of cooperation on situations in the Far East that might be relevant to the security of the island nation, mostly referencing the use of USFJ facilities for securing Far East contingencies. With a high level of interoperability and cooperation, the US—Japan alliance now encompasses joint efforts in defence planning and development in the technological sphere, as well as new dimensions of military activity, space, and cyber defence.
Another indicator of the strategic weight of the Alliance is the volume and composition of USFJ troops stationed in the country throughout the three decades of Heisei. Not by any coincidence, the aftermath of the Taiwan Strait crisis in the mids saw a spike in US presence in Japan, with a temporary dip in the early 12, The composition of fighter aircraft deployments to the USFJ shows the strategic significance of the US military presence in Japan, highlighted by the fact that there is currently a substantial number of the latest generation of fighters, such as the F Raptor and the F Lightning, on hand.
Another element of USFJ power projection capabilities is the major naval surface combatant ships, aircraft carriers, and amphibious landing ships. The spike in the number of surface warships, currently consisting mainly of Airleigh Burke-class destroyers and Ticonderoga-class cruisers, highlights the role the US—Japan alliance plays in US geostrategy, namely the importance of forward deployment in an increasingly contested maritime environment, the Western Pacific.
Taking a look at the end of the Heisei years and then the era of Reiwa, the anticipation of change is a natural tendency. However, in terms of the dynamics of the US—Japan alliance, the main. While the sociopolitical aspect of the alliance has had its strains move more towards the centre stage of political debate in the s, it seems unlikely that unresolved issues, such as the military bases in Okinawa, will resurface with the same national attention in the foreseeable future.
At the same time, US military presence, with key power projection assets, seems to have kept pace with the increasingly contested operational maritime environment of the Western Pacific. Most likely, the benefits of the latter will highly outweigh the problems caused by the former.
The outcome of this referendum sent a clear message to the central government—yet nothing seems to have changed so far. Why is the relocation needed, and why do Okinawans oppose it? What is the meaning of the referendum? Okinawa, the southern islands of Japan, has been quite a unique part of the country both culturally and politically.
This mentality has contributed largely to the ominous situation that the central government has to deal with in present times. For strategic. The maintenance costs of these bases placed an uncomfortable burden on the country, but the presence of the US military personnel posed further issues to the locals. Since the main facility, Futenma Air Force base, is located right at the heart of the densely populated Nago city, various problems arose in the past couple of decades. The most general ones are noise and air pollution, not to mention the several accidents that caused public safety concerns among the locals.
Major outrages were also triggered by the marines committing serious crimes in the past. One of them was the infamous rape incident, when three servicemen kidnapped, beat, and raped a year-old schoolgirl. In another case, a transport helicopter crashed into a building of the Okinawa International University. In , helicopter parts fell on a playground and a daycare centre, endangering young children. Vandalism, littering, and overall bad behaviour on behalf of the marines have compelled the locals to initiate protests against the stationed US military personnel.
Most of the local politicians win their elections with the promise of forcing the central government to relocate the base. NID News. And while talks about the relocation began many years ago, the US—Japan alliance ended the negotiations with a new location that is still on the territory of Okinawa Prefecture—this time to the north, in Henoko, which is known to provide habitat to the endangered dugong species near its shores and has a rather problematic tectonic plate underneath, which is weak against earthquakes.
The referendum was non-binding, and the central government, unfortunately, seems to pay no heed to it. The gears of the relocation process are already turning, but current Okinawa Governor Denny Tamaki, the half-American politician from a Japanese single mother, who never knew his marine father, is eager to clash with the Abe Administration in any way he can to further the cause of the anti-relocation efforts.
History, politics, and social change since the s. November 27, Minisitry of Defense. September 23, April 27, From a Central European perspective, Japan seems to have been one of the most stable countries in the world in the last decade. Every scholar of East Asian international relations and strategic prospects knows about the territorial disputes with the Russian Federation over the Kuril or Chishima Islands, and the debates with China and the two Koreas regarding the activities of Japanese soldiers and the colonial administration in the first half of the 20th century, but these issues seemed to have low conflict potential.
The reason for the differing Central European reading of the situation is the different historical heritage its nations have. Most of the territorial disputes between neighbouring countries in our region have given rise to a great fundamental antagonism in the fields of ethnopolitics and national identity.
Although it is difficult to compare the Japanese situation to this, the stakes of the territorial disputes are no less severe. Moreover, in the last decade, these debates seemed to have been much more serious than before. Despite the integrity of the four main islands—the core areas of the Japanese state—the importance of the small disputed islands is undeniable from the perspective of the geopolitical and strategic transformation of Northeast Asia and, consequently, from the perspective of the future of Japan.
This short article aims to explain these territorial issues. Russian and Japanese expansion. Japan did not recognise this unilateral action, but, as a defeated country, it could not do much against it. However, this does not mean that the two countries have not discussed the matter at all. On 19 October , the two parties signed the Soviet—Japanese Joint Declaration, which —among others—committed the Soviet Union to transferring two small areas the Habomai Islands and Shikotan , but made no mention of the two large islands, Kunashiri and Etorofu.
According to the Joint Declaration, the actual transfer of Habomai and Shikotan to Japan was supposed to take place after the signing of a peace treaty—which has not taken place to date. This position was also inherited by the Russian Federation in Russia, as the legal successor to the Soviet Union, did not foreclose the possibility of a final peace agreement in principle, but, in practice, it has never shown enough flexibility for this.
Russia named them Southern Kuriles, which means that these islands are inalienable parts of its territory. According to data, thousands of people live in the disputed area, mainly Ukrainians and Russians. The Russian side showed openness to a minor territorial concession on the status quo. Until this manuscript was closed, there had been further rounds of high-level talks in December and January Russia keeps its East Asian neighbour under permanent pressure, which fits well in its foreign policy of strengthening Russian influence in Eurasia.
According to the Chinese standpoint, Japan occupied the islets, together with Taiwan and the surrounding islands, under the Treaty of Shimonoseki in As this treaty was repealed, the islands should have returned to China. Nevertheless, apart from the clash of legal and historical interpretations, this dispute would hardly have had real conflict potential if significant hydrocarbon stocks had not been found near the islets in the s.
There is no doubt that these potential sources would be beneficial for both of the two great hydrocarbon importer countries. Since the s, entering the disputed area has become more common for both parties. Of course, the situation in the PRC and Japan are markedly different. Almost all the oil and gas consumed in Japan comes from overseas sources. Albeit very high, it is still significantly lower than in Japan. At the same time, Chinese naval forces are showing rapid build-up.
Generally speaking, a historical heritage such as the Japanese rule can induce what some might consider overreactions in case of symbolic issues. The debated name of the sea between the Korean Peninsula and the Japanese Islands is a widely known example of this.
The sea in question is the so-called Eastern Sea, which is actually known as the Sea of Japan both in the island country and the west. Seoul sees this name as a remnant of Internationally, the islets are classified as the Liancourt Rocks. They consists of two bigger islets and three dozen small rocks.
There is no consensus on who was the first to have administrative control over the archipelago. The clash of various Japanese and Korean historical theories has not led to a mutually acceptable solution yet. Like the territorial issues discussed earlier, the Takeshima debate is also rooted in the second half of the 20th century.
Even though the United States has considered the islets to be under Japanese sovereignty since the s, Washington has declined to interfere in the territorial debate between its two key East Asian allies. This resulted in the current situation, and, at the same time, froze the conflict. Nevertheless, current debates between Japan and the ROK are based on primarily ideological and symbolical antagonism, and not on substantial security dilemmas.
Therefore, it is hardly a basis for serious confrontation. Routledge, London, Japan Forum. Financial Times. This phenomenon is closely related to a transformation in the geostrategic environment of Northeast Asia and the wider Asia-Pacific Region. Its fundamental interest lies in the stability of the geostrategic status quo, but, over the decades, it has become more and more evident that its economic and military capabilities alone are not sufficient to maintain a comfortable degree of security against its major regional challengers.
This encourages closer cooperation with the US, which can also be observed in Japanese strategic documents. The latter, however, had caused great discontent in Beijing. Japanese territorial debates, such as the Kuril and Senkaku disputes, might be suitable for. Centre for Russian Studies.
Affairs of Japan. San Francisco, 8 September Agency of Natural Resources and Energy. July Friendly Foes of East Asia. The New York Times. As various investigations and intelligence agencies uncovered the abductions and identified why and how they had occurred, Japanese authorities discovered that the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan Chongryon had played an important role in them.
In the light of this revelation, the government of Japan strongly insists that North Korea disclose the names of cooperating Chongryon members, while continuing investigation into many other cases of citizens who were likely taken by these agents. When discussing the abduction of Japanese citizens by North Korea, a review of the Japan— DPRK relations, as well as an overview of the economic and social background of the time when they happened must be provided.
Yet the two neighbouring countries did not share diplomatic ties. In , the investigation of the failed attempt to assassinate the South Korean President Park Chung Hee 3 led to zainichi suspects as well, and revealed a dangerous connection between the case and Chongryon members travelling to the DPRK on the Niigata— Wonsan ferry route.
Between and , Japanese investigation authorities uncovered numerous abduction cases under unusual circumstances which suggested the possibility of a North Korean involvement. Among the nearly one hundred cases, seventeen Japanese citizens were surely kidnapped by. North Korean agents, although Pyongyang notoriously denied their involvement.
The Japanese found their suspicions confirmed in when a deserting North Korean intelligence agent mentioned a Japanese abductee during questioning by Japanese officials, and the description matched Megumi Yokota, a year-old girl who vanished in Tensions between Japanese society and Chongryon members led to many cases of violent assault against pro-North zainichi people, including harassment of students, as well as bomb and bullet threats, which worsened after the North Korean ballistic missile launches.
Kim promised that he would prevent such incidents from recurring, punish the people responsible, and help abductees reunite with their family. The negotiation talks were suspended under pressure from Koizumi until the kidnapped returned to Japan, yet the parties made a declaration to move further towards the resolution of security issues.
According to the North Koreans, out of thirteen cases eight people were dead, including Megumi Yokota, who was said to have committed suicide. The DPRK also found. North Korea claims the death of the abductees. North Korea denies abductees entered its territory. Returned to Japan. Kaoru Hasuike disappeared after he went out stating that he was going out and would soon be back.
Similarly, Yukiko Okudo disappeared after going out. The couple returned to Japan in October The couple disappeared after going out, stating that they were going on a date. They disappeared after going out, stating that they were going shopping. Ms Hitomi Soga returned to Japan in October The safety of Ms Miyoshi is unknown. North Korea denies she entered its territory. Their family members arrived separately in However, North Korea claimed that her mother had not entered the country, although she disappeared alongside her daughter.
In many Information from different sources affirms that this organisation may be responsible for political propaganda and has a membership full of extremists. It was also accused of cooperating with the yakuza and conducting intelligence activities with North Korean sleeper agents under a cover organisation, but neither of the statements was based on concrete,.
North Korea has stated that they have used the kidnapped victims for teaching Japanese language and customs while training spies, and for translating and explaining intelligence reports or information gained from newspapers. In addition, undercover agents were now able to use the identity of the abductees while deployed in Japan or South Korea. There were many cases where more than one person was kidnapped.
A young couple, Kaoru Hasuike and Yukiko Okudo, were taken from a festival on the sea coast, and there was also the disappearance of Yasushi Chimura and Fukie Chimura, who were on a date. These four people and Hitomi Soga, who was taken with her mother, were lucky enough to be able to return to Japan. The Hasuikes, who spent altogether twenty years in North Korea, got married and had two children during their captivity.
But when the regime let them visit their homeland, expecting them to come back, they chose to stay in Japan. The couple spent two years without their children until Pyongyang let all family members travel to Japan in Returning to Japan, Kaoru Hasuike wrote a book about their twenty-year captivity, titled Abduction and Decision, in which he details his life translating Japanese newspaper articles for North Korean officials. However, concrete action was delayed.
In the end, North Korea suspended its efforts after Japan introduced new sanctions against them because of its continuous nuclear and missile tests. Kim Jong Un declared that the regime would no longer cooperate until Japan paid a certain amount of ransom for the hostages and cover the costs of the investigation. It continuously demands that North Korea release the Japanese abductees including two pro-North zainichi infants taken in , recognise every other unidentified victim, and cooperate with the investigation.
Furthermore, North Korea would have to reveal the identity of those Japanese supposed zainichi Koreans and Chongryon members who helped the agents in the abduction. Meanwhile, the Chongryon is also the only place for the Korean minority in Japan with a Northern identity to ensure legal defence, and provide subsistence and ethnic education. Thus, the Japanese authorities decided to arrest Chongryon leaders and individuals responsible for, e. Japan used to put pressure on Pyongyang by holding back even humanitarian aid until the remaining abductees were released and until it abandoned its nuclear weapons efforts, although without any success.
In accordance with the Pyongyang Declaration, the resolution of the abduction issue is a precondition for the normalisation of diplomatic relations and a key element in the future of the North Korean minority in Japan. Korea was divided. The Japanese authorities did not provide them Japanese nationality, only permanent residency. Most of the pachinko parlours are owned by zainichi, due to it being almost the only way for them to earn money due to their diminished employment opportunities.
Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. Magyar Nemzet. The two leaders met in Pyongyang in order to normalise relations, economic and cultural ties, while initiating official bilateral relations. Japan would provide economic cooperation in granting aids, long-term loans, and humanitarian assistance while both. The declaration contains the review the legal status of North Korean residents in Japan and their.
The majority of them were relocated to Japan during the Japanese Occupation of the Korean Peninsula — , either by force as cheap labour or free will. The complexity of their status caused major disturbance, when the occupation ended, and later when After World War II, the countries normalised their diplomatic relations in , which have changed significantly since then.
Not only has the international order transformed, but so has the role that East Asian countries play in it. One of the main features—and contradiction— of current Sino-Japanese relations is that, in their case, great economic interdependence and antagonistic political and diplomatic relations.
On the contrary, their relations are characterised by clashes over historical narratives, geopolitical rivalry, and territorial disputes. Although the situation has not devolved into armed hostility, their bilateral ties have been particularly tense at times. How to Buy Bitcoins. Bitcoin is an online alternative currency system, which acts as a form of digital money. Pompa is used both as an investment, and as a method The bitcoins way to buy digital currency. Buy bitcoins with your credit card here!
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Retail sales figures show an increase of 6. Circulars concerning Alberto Vettoretti, Posted: 2nd July Asia is fast on its way to becoming the largest e-commerce market in the world. By Webb Ward, Posted: 20th May The government often makes changes to the limits and regulations for savers, and Budget time is the moment for reform to be pushed through. The changes apply to savers all over the country but perhaps those in London should pay particular attention to the benefits of the new ISA savings regime - the percentage of adults who have ISAs is smallest in London along with the North East at By Webb Ward, Posted: 5th May The main motivation for making a sensible investment is of course the raw financial benefit that it brings.
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That said, there is a tendency amongst less professional or trustworthy Created in , Bitcoins are a peer-to-peer virtual form of currency able to be bought or sold on online exchanges. While the value of a single Bitcoin is very vo Legal Notice 47 of came into force on 4 February Gox shutdown, the first Bitcoin ATM allowing cash-to-virtual currency transactions opened in Singapore yesterday.
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Private equity investors are re-emerging from the UK down-turn as backers of companies with promising growth prospects that have weathered the previously mu In theory, deficits can be good for an economy when they make up for a shortfall in private demand and provide the impetus for the private sector to grow at a faster rate — better to spend money stimul By Tony Davis, Posted: 8th January Gold has grabbed the headlines thus far in and appears to be headed toward a positive year, with an increase of nearly 2.
This is following a year in which the price of gold had its worst performing year in 32 years. While we bel It is a financial center in the south wing of the Yangtze River Delta, and a tra By Mark Schonfeld, Posted: 6th January Until recently, the manufacturer of an object required a factory for mass production, a substantial investment in equipment, inventory and materials, and a brick-and-mortar retail site to sell product.
All this has changed with the advent of 3D printing. This disruptive technology will change the way we live because it will enable consumers and small businesses to manufacture p By Patricia S. As such, forei It will also be the second-fastest growing market for domestic passengers. Such a move, if it happened, would permit free flow of the RMB into and out of Chin We summarize some of them below. United States The U. Export Assistance Centers Energy Information Administration, last month China imported more oil than any other country in the world, including the United States.
China had to import 6. The city itself has five counties and four districts under its jurisdiction, and has a population of over 7. It is also serve By Martin Fowler, Posted: 4th November The pace of global growth has broadly accelerated since our July commentary. The United States has added over two million jobs in the past year and robust corporate profits have driven share-markets higher. The slowdown in China has at least been temporarily reversed with another round of stimulus reviving the rate of growth to above 7.
In addition, the Eurozone ca By Oyvind Hovland, Posted: 1st November There has recently been certain changes in Norwegian international tax and corporate law that are positive and potentially negative to EU established real estate funds investing in Norwegian real estate. In this article this will be illustrated by looking at foreign investors that via Luxembourg established real estate funds invest in Norwegian real estate owned by Norwegian The countries are seeking to meet their energy mix targets and have continuously supported renewable energy generation.
Generous support through feed-in tariffs and comparable structures has been granted to wind power, biomass hea The ITIR, which will include special economic zones and industrial parks, is expected to become a key information technology hub in the region and will focus on acc By Einari Karhu, Posted: 16th October Because of their economic nature as investment vehicles and collective asset unity, investment funds and institutional investors are usually treated as tax-exempt or fiscally transparent vehicles.
Therefore any additional tax burden at the level of investment object is an additional cost to the investors. Finland has recently introduced its version of No rest for President Xi Jinping certainly, who has been running around Southeast Asia before speaking at the By Hugh Naylor, Posted: 1st October In investors woke up to the realities of the debt-fuelled extravagancies of the noughties and, for many people, the financial world metaphorically stopped turning.
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Annual growth in household consumption over Much of these gains emanated from conventional and unconventional monetary policy initiatives orchestrated by Central Banks eager to promote growth and ward off a perilous deflationary spiral. The main purpose of these initiatives has been President Sang welcomed the invitation to visit China, saying the two count While the Shenzhen example originated as an entire city area cordoned off from the rest of China in case the experiment with capitalism went wrong, the concept, while not n The city used to be a major link on the ancient Silk Road and has played a vital role in the cultural and economic exchange between China and countries to its west throughout Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe.
Today, Lanzhou The rationale for increasi The drop — some 4 percent from FDI figures in — is down to a number of issues, not least These events are high level, attracting many American At the turn of the 21st Century, there were two main schools of commercial thought with regards to China.
The most popular was that China represented a massive market to s Companies in Singapore enjoy a low corporate income tax rate of 17 percent, no tax payable on dividends earned externally from its borders, and By Heather Cruz, Mark D. Now that the initial round of filings is complete for the largest advisers, we expect that their experiences will prove instructive for advisers preparing their fir The authors of this article agree that any realistic assessment of the Portuguese economy must acknowledge that the decaying economic conditions have taken their toll.
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These solutions primarily t Luxembourg offers companies exceptional opportunities for doing business in Europe a Gibraltar has emerged from the reshaped regulatory landscape as a seriou By Daniel Haefele , Posted: 30th January Distribution to Swiss Investors becomes more difficult and more expensive in the light of the new regulations. Outsourcing legal representation to a high-quality local service provider and access to an extensive distribution network are key.
Currently Swiss financial intermediaries are being affected by a wave of new Although China is still evolving as an emerging market, I disagree with the basic premise that it is becoming tougher, and even unwelcoming, to foreign investors.
A sense of foreign investors being singled out for specific ab Furthermore, Chinese leaders have now officially prioritized Chinese outbound investment over the historical The proposed economic zone would cover the entirety of Henan Province, as well as But it was the renewable sector, since about , who gave rise to an irreversible boom in the energy market, leading to energy practice spin off as well as the creation of large specific departments in this area.
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Such participation may be somewhat unstructured but there is a changing trend with the establishment of formal systems. Significant to this was the growth in the number of parcel deliveries being made around the country.
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Foreign investors However, the province boasts enormous economic potential. By Hugh Naylor, Posted: 26th October As Europe suffers stagnant growth and the weak recovery in the US appears to be grinding to a halt investors and corporations continue to focus on the high growth opportunities presented by emerging markets. Amongst these Africa is increasingly becoming a favourite. Consistent growth over the last decade, albeit from a low base, combined with greater economic and political stab Within this broad legal spectrum, the concerned transactions have their reflections and consequences most common among others in law of obligations, commercial law, capital markets law and c Your choice of entity depends on the kind of work you plan to do during your time in the country.
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Although thi By Sofia Liska, Posted: 7th June The fund industry in India will soon enter the next phase of its evolution now that the Securities and Exchange Board of India SEBI has released the alternative investment fund AIF regulations, which they aligned to work with both international developments and the Indian economy. Little will change for funds currently governed by the venture capit By Martin Fowler, Posted: 6th June With the Australian share market oscillating in a trading range of around 4, to 4, points for several years now, it is little wonder that investors are beginning to doubt old rules of thumb in favour of the concept of the "new normal".
One increasingly common example is the multiple of earnings or price to earnings ratio PE. The price to ea It is proposing several reforms to address the capital-intensive needs of small to mid cap energy and resources companies. These include changes to the current capital raising and admission requirements. The ASX has also provided useful advance By Al Cooper, Posted: 21st May There's a lot of money to be made in real estate, and since most don't like to see one percent returns on their bank CDs, many are starting to jump into the real estate investing game because of the nice returns.
The problem with real estate investing is that if you make one wrong move, you could quickly be thousands of dollars in the hole. Like any industry, there are The 12th FYP outlines the fruitful achievements made during the 11th FYP, analyzes the new domestic and international environment for foreign trade, and Well, everyone, I guess.
One of these most efficient and reliable vehicle to achieve this goal is building and generating money online to pay off debts and By Gerd Foerster, Posted: 18th April Amongst the several advantages of doing businesses in Brazil, the most important are related to the Brazilian territorial size and its population. Possessing an almost continental extension, being the fifth largest country of the world in area and with a population of approximately million inhabitants, Brazil has a consuming market of more than million people.
By Tom Cleveland, Posted: 16th April At one time in the not too distant past, international commerce was primarily the private playground of large corporate enterprises. The shock of the crisis prompte However, in order to survive, it has always ensured that its staff is on the cutting edge of changes to the law and the legal system. Today, approximately half of its turnover derives from p Since the beginning of , foreign institutional investors FIIs have infused a total of Rs.
The cumulative impact of various regulatory initiatives on the global investment fund industry is uncertain and should be analysed, in order Historically, most businesses were organized as corporations. Over time, however, the trend ha By Fiona Le Poidevin, Posted: 23rd February Guernsey has an investment fund industry with a heritage that stretches back half a century.
This experience means that the Island has built a wealth of expertise By Jake Powers, Posted: 20th February Investors have been acquiring businesses and making minority investments in privately held companies since the dawn of the industrial revolution. However with a few exceptions, private equity in the first half of the 20th century was the domain of wealthy individuals and families. Early H Shenzhen: PE Development Fund In the wake of the financial crisis that exploded from onwards and the effects of that on funds one issue has been the subject of harsh exposure.
That is the corporate governance of funds suffering exposures and, more pa By Claire Keeney, Posted: 15th February Given European wide austerity measures and economic uncertainty, it is expected that will be a difficult year for the commercial and retail property fund sectors. The sovereign debt and financial crisis continues to negatively impact financial markets, specifically within Euro dominated countries in the Eurozone. Relative inaction by some European policymakers app By Nicolas Palate , Posted: 14th February Despite the current economic slowdown, Private Equity remains a key feature of the economic landscape, playing a major role in the business economy as it represents a fundamental source of support to unlisted companies, throughout their lifecycle.
It also permits direct and indirect investment in and promotion of innovation and new technologies, and as a result stimulates growth By Steven T. Kolyer, Posted: 13th February The scope and volume of credit and credit intermediation services being provided by banks and banking institutions has been going through a period of stress and contraction while the need for such services continues to exist and, in many markets, grow.
Opportunities exist, and will continue to expand, for non-banks — particularly private, unregulated funds a By Zeeshan A. Sustainable development - the notion of being able to continue current operations indefinitely - requires the concurrent management of economic Nonetheless, the Australian Government has long desired to establish Australia as a financial services hub and the past decade has s This was taken a step further when the Finance Ministry vide its press release dated 1st Various changes and innovations were introduced in — By Andrew Bates, Posted: 24th January Notwithstanding the ongoing international economic crisis, the Irish funds industry continues to thrive with latest industry statistics highlighting that Irish domiciled fund assets have now passed the Euro 1 trillion mark.
New fund launches have steadily increased, with many existing industry participants launching alternative type For two nations so large, sometimes at polar opposites, yet at the same time offering potentially comparable market sizes, is unprecedented in history.
But what is not well understood is how management expertise and capital move ideas and concepts from laboratories, garages and backrooms into innovative, commercially viable products and services, adding to the economic well-being The new Catalog replaces the previous version released in There is no question that this can be attributed in large part to the basic tenet of the jurisdiction being tax neutral, highly cost efficient and offering a good degree of privacy within which to conduct business affairs.
However many other far less successful jurisdi Kindly note the views expressed are my own, and are derived from my own experience of running a MNC business in China, as well as taking into account comments made during the summit. They do not reflect the views of, are not contributed to, and are not endorsed by the Economist Group By Maarten Roos, Posted: 22nd November Part I: How to choose between a Representative Office, a Joint Venture and a Wholly-owned Subsidiaries In when the global financial crisis struck, European companies put on hold most of their plans to develop the business in China — preservation of cash was a greater priority.
The recent unc By Oscar A. By Anne Todd , Posted: 16th November — was a very busy period for the advisory committee and legislators who engaged in amending the Cayman Islands Companies Law with an eye to removing the stumbling blocks which have troubled lawyers and clients alike in recent times. The Companies Amendment Law, the "Law" resolves these issues and some of the most important changes are highl By Thierry Afschrift, Posted: 15th November The global economic crisis is primarily due to the financial crisis which started on , before reaching its higher point during the second half of As for the purely financial crisis, it attacked the capacity, and will, of the banks to lend money, a fact that had negative repercussions on the consumers and, generally, on the economic activity.
By Michael R. There are various ways for compani The asset class has been around long enough to be firmly established as a leader in the investment arena, producing higher long-term performance than any other asset class. By Lance Jon Kimmel, Posted: 2nd November One of the bright spots on the public company scene in recent years has been the rise of Chinese companies going public in the U.
The sheer size of the ever-growing Chinese domestic market was certain to present an almost endless supply of companies with millions of dollars of predictable revenue and profit. It seemed too good to be true and by mid- to late, it started to By Ichino Brugnatelli e Associati, Posted: 31st October Although Italy is often considered as a peripheral Country, its economy is still one of the most developed in the world. It employs millions of people across diverse industries: no need to list world famous Italian brands and products.
Thanks to its mild climate, natural beauty and rich history and culture, this Country is t By Nico Abel, Posted: 26th October For many decades, Germany has consistently experienced significant inbound investment and it is widely recognised that foreign investment has been a considerable contributor to growth and prosperity in Germany. Investment from the US has always been strong and continues to account for a large share of foreign investment.
More recently, cash rich strategic investors fro Estimated at USD1trillion currently, the alternative finance has been growing exponentially at double digit rates for over a decade and has spread across all financial components including insurance. The nascent insur By Timothy W. While almost three years have passed since the Ponzi scheme was exposed, Redeeming Investors should not assume that the passage of time has reduced their litigation risk. Redeeming Inves By Catarina Goncalves, Posted: 21st September Economy diplomacy will play a big part on the recovery of the Portuguese economy for the next few years.
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