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If Indra suddenly rains on a blessed spot of the earth and into a silver vessel, it should be recognized as a pearl coming from the serpents…. A pearl born of the serpents, being worn by kings, will prove invaluable to them, destroy their misfortune and enemies, enhance their reputation and bestow victory….

Such a gem is to be known as of inestimable value. A king who wears such a serpent-gem will never have troubles arising from poison and diseases. Indra will always be pouring good rains in his realm, and as a result of the intrinsic power of the gem he will annihilate his enemies. These pearls are numerous, large, brilliant, and of various shapes. These are beyond any estimate and should not be perforated, being too brilliant.

When they are worn by kings, they prove highly sanctifying and bestow children, victory, and sound health. They are between the size of a large marble and the upper joint of the thumb, with symmetrical markings. A pearl obtained from inside the hollow stem of a bamboo resembles a hailstone in color, and is found only in bamboo that grows in the land of the honest and the pious, and not in every type of that grass. Flawless cognitions swiftly fly to him who finds himself in his last birth, just as pure pearls lodge themselves in the best bamboo.

Several types of Whale Pearl have been observed, varying in texture. Several types of Fish Pearl have been observed, varying only in color i. By illuminating the four quarters of the sky with its native lustre, a cloud-begotten pearl, like the sun dispels the gloom of a cloudy day. Outshining the combined effulgence of the fire, the moon, and the myriads of scintillating stars, such a pearl, like the dawn of day, can dispel the gloom of even the darkest night on earth.

The whole earth, girdled by the four oceans containing innumerable gems in the fathomless depths, can not be deemed as the adequate price of such a pearl, even if she be covered over with layers of pure gold. A man, born in indigence and of humble parents, but happening to be the possessor of such a pearl, only through the transformation of a good deed done in a previous existence, is sure to be the paramount sovereign of the entire surface of the Earth.

Not to the good deeds of the king alone, but to the better fortune of the whole humanity, should be ascribed the advent of such a man on earth, and no evil would ever strike the land to the extent of a thousand Yojanas a Yojana is about 8 to 9 miles round the place of his birth. It falls there with the brilliance of lightning and is taken away before it reaches the earth by the denizens of heaven.

Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. In the present times, Vastu Shastra is the most commonly used term, especially when it comes to purchasing or constructing a new home. To have a happy and prosperous household you must lay stress on enhancing the positive energy inside your home. Vastu Shastra increases wealth, well being and prosperity if you live in structures that allow positive cosmic forces.

Although placement of a Puja Ghar itself brings positive energies in a home, but designing this sacred place as per Vastu guidance enhances positivity in the environment all around. According to Vastu Shastra, the North East zone or the Eeshan Ishan corner of a house is the best suited area for placing the Puja room. It is believed that when Vastu Purush was brought down to the earth, his head laid in the north-east direction. So, while worshipping in this direction along with coming closer to the deity, we also pay obeisance to him.

The direction also receives the purifying rays of the rising sun, which purifies the environment and brings positivity and prosperity into our homes. You need not suffer from these states of mind. They are illusions of the first class, and many of us have had them for so long that we forget that our natural state is one of joy, vibrant health and, bliss, even.

If you are using this as a meditation tool, the center point aims at bringing your awareness to a more and more singular point. There are other places that this ratio exists. It is in nature, for example, and quite prolifically displayed.

It is in nautilus shells, in the formation of leaves and petals of innumerable plants. The divine ratio shows up in ocean wave patterns, and you guessed it, sound. The way scientists were able to change DNA was by using particular frequencies of sound, which are essentially energetic patterns, which then encode the DNA much like a computer programmer dictates how a software will work on your computer by creating a syntax which it recognizes. If, in fact, junk DNA holds the keys to opening our true gifts, then it can surely be utilized with sound frequency, to heal us.

When we pair these findings with the work of Dr. Emoto Masaru of What the Bleep Do We Know, fame and countless other energy healers that have come forth with their findings in recent years, then we can see why sound, i. If our Wholeness is contained in a singular point, but can expand to include all there is, then the focus on that one point, vibrationally, should heal all that is out of whack, by nature of aligning it with its true nature.

The Sri Yantra is, for certain, a visual representation of primordial knowledge, and sound is its carry signal. First the length of the wall should be measured; its length should be divided into two equal parts. The door should be fixed a little bit nearer towards the northern side from the centre of the wall, as the southern side is not a prosperous one.

Similarly the door should be fixed a little bit nearer towards the eastern side from the centre of the wall, as the western side is not a prosperous one. A house can have the doors on all sides. A house needs doors, windows, shelves and ventilators. These things should be in even number. The door is to be kept opposite to another door. A house should not have three doors. The south-western side of the house is considered to be the mean sides and the north and the eastern sides are considered to be the good sides.

Each room should have the doors on Eastern and Northern sides. To fix the doors, wo have to measure the length of the wall and note the Centro of the wall and fix the door. Each room has two sides mean side and good side. Here is an example:. Small doors and small windows arc to be fixed on the eastern and the northern sides. The level under the threshold on the southern and the western sides should be over and above that of the eastern and northern sides.

The level of the floor inside the rooms should be comparatively low and water should go out through the north-east corner. Doors should not be fixed so that they face the roads coming in opposite direction. If the roads come in opposite direction and face the door, the house may yield to negative results.

The house which has its main door on the eastern side is the house with eastern simhadwara the main door. Such a house should have minimum possible extent of site on its southern and western sides. The house may have its verandahs on south and west. There should be adequate height on the southern and the western sides. The level should be comparatively lower its eastern and northern sides. The water-level should be lower on the eastern and the northern sides. The eastern verandah should be lower in height.

The house with eastern simhadwara should have its staircase on the south-east or the south-west Or the north-west corner. It should not be on the north- east corner. Such a house is to be built leaving the minimum extent of site on its southern side and leaving so many sites on the northern side. It is better to have verandahs on its northern side.

The movement of water inside the house should lead to its north-eastern corner, if the house has so much of site on the north, it yields good results and the family prospers. The staircase again should be on the south-east corner or on the south-west corner or on the north-west corner also. The house that has its main door on the western side is the house with the western simhadwara. To build such a house, we should not leave much space-on the western side.

If the owner leaves- much space-on the western side, he may incur huge financial losses, he may undergo mental agony etc. He may face the danger of becoming iH and may die a premature death The water level inside the house should point to the north-east corner. The owner should leave space to the maximum extent possible in north and east. VI exhibens, patet, cum pro papillarum motu et dispositione, compressione, intumescentia, flacciditate et similibus cor- poris reticularis foraminum figura mutari debeat: ut proponitur, fig.

The heart according to Bidloo. Yet boiling was not the best method for the in- vestigation of the ventricles. These chambers could be best seen with the help of desiccated specimens. Bidloo inserted several quills into a desiccated heart that pierced through the barely visible valves. Thanks to these quills, the connections between the atria and the ventricles were adequately shown.

Finally, Fig. Table XXII on the heart thus offered a functional theory of representation. There was no single method that could transparently depict all building blocks of the heart. The muscles, chambers, valves and blood vessels each required a specific mode of visualization. The blood vessels were shown in the state when they were filled with wax. Yet this representation was only approximate, as Bidloo admitted explicitly, because wax could not reach some blood vessels that were hidden in the muscles and around the bones.

In or- der to highlight potential distortions, he even offered a detailed explanation how his method of wax-injection worked. This way, readers could judge for themselves how this method could produce artifacts. The response did not wait long. Referente Arteriae aortae, cera repletae, in corpore sex post partum mensium infantis quam separatam reservo , praecipuas e trunco distributiones; Minores enim sub involucris, ossibus atque musculis reconditae, cultello persequi saepius non potui.

Ex hac videre est quam diversimode interdum ejus propagines ducantur atque sint situatae. Lubet huic divaricationis descriptioni, modum, quo vasa haec impleantur, ut et quorundam curiositati satisfiat, praefigere. The heart according to Ruysch. Ruysch, Alle de werken. He must have been afraid that visitors would see how useless they were. Wax-injection was an auto-inscription technique that blindly followed the arteries.

Paper, in con- trast, allowed for the intervention of reason in making a faithful representation. And only the dictates of reason could help correctly depict the coronary arteries. The intervention of reason allows paper to control and rep- resent nature in the form of abstracted diagrams.

From a historical perspective, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison have argued that enlightened anatomical at- lases, in particular, retouched images of the body so that they could better accord with the idealism of mathematics and the Classics.

Many of these analyses thus ally the use of paper and reason with an abstracted or idealized representation of nature. It served only to correctly depict chaotic nature in all its whimsical particularities. He claimed that the smaller branches of these arteries could be seen properly neither with a mi- croscope nor with the help of a preparation.

Yet reason postulated the existence of these branches because, together with the capillaries, they were needed to connect the arteries to the veins. How could one then visualize these barely visible struc- tures? He offered a particularistic representa- tion of the blood vessels with a plethora of idiosyncratic detail.

The aorta and the coronary arteries according to Bidloo. Of the two branched vessels, the right one disappeared inside the heart. The left one, in contrast, again branched into four smaller arteries. Why did Bidloo de- pict four of these small, practically invisible arteries, and not three or five?

At and beneath the microscopic level, the structure of the circulatory system continuously varied from person to person. Some coronary arteries mean- dered to the right, others to the left. In some people, certain arteries branched into four capillaries. In others, the same arteries branched into two, three or five.

Whether he depicted three or four smaller arteries, some people in a sufficiently large population must have featured a configura- tion that matched the representation. The law of large numbers ensured that at least a few people in the world had a coronary artery that meandered to the right, branched into two and then again into four.

But, by all probability, it corresponded to at least one specimen among the millions of people. Ruysch was very critical of this image and claimed that the positions of the branchings were incorrect. Yet the same laws of fickleness could represent the coronary arteries without recourse to visual evidence.

Vari- ability ensured that naturalism could be objective even in the absence of first- hand observation. Quo jure negat, in aorta ejusque di- varicatione, ab me observatum? Daston and Galison differentiate between truth-to-nature and mechanical objectivity, both of which impose a regime of regularity on the observer. Mechanical objectivity re- lies on an automated, trustworthy representational technique that works by elim- inating human intervention. In contrast, Bidloo accepted that fickle nature obeyed no rules, within certain limits.

Judgment was supplemented by creativity. First, anatomical preparations could not capture the temporal, sequential changes that the organs of the human body underwent. Secondly, anatomical preparations offered only one, and more- over distorted, image of the human body, and not a transparent representation. Bidloo did not simply break with the tradition of Ruyschian preparations, but also disposed of the idea of transparent representation. For him, no single im- age could present a faithful image of an organ in the human body.

Anatomists first had to decide what they wanted to learn about a particular organ and only then could they choose a proper way of imaging the body. Instead of establishing a world-class museum, Bidloo therefore decided to publish a luxurious atlas. Ruysch received aristocratic guests in his anatomical museum, used his specimens in private lessons and, at a later stage in his life, decided to sell the collection in toto.

Bidloo, on the other hand, used his anatomical atlas to gain the patronage of William III, who later secured him a professorship in Leiden. Their epistemological standpoints corresponded well with the size, value and circulation patterns of their collections of their specimens. The Ruyschian museum was a major financial enterprise, and its sale elevated Ruysch into the highest echelons of Amsterdam society.

His first anatomical col- lection, which also included some animal and plant specimens, was sold to czar Peter the Great in Ruysch received 30, guilders for roughly two thou- sand specimens, and an additional 5, guilders for divulging his secret method of wax injection. Soon thereafter, he started a new cabinet. In December he authorized his grandson Juriaan Pool to begin inquiries about potential customers. Ruysch specified that the museum could not be sold for less than 22, guilders.

Un- fortunately, he died the following year and left behind 1, specimens that were auctioned off soon afterwards. In , a single specimen cost 15 guilders on average. The collection of pharmacist Albertus Seba, a friend of Ruysch, was put on auction in Seba owned 73 Ruyschian preparations, which included animal and plant specimens and went for more than guilders Table 1. Wet preparations fetched roughly 10 guilders on average, whereas dry specimens were worth slightly over 4 guilders per lot.

Despite the drop, these 20 On the first sale, see Driessen, De kunstkamera. For the second catalogue, see Ruysch, Catalogus. Pickled snakes and birds cost almost 1. Preparations of fish were sold for just below 2 guilders, while exotic insects could be purchased for 5 guilders per lot.

Other animals were priced at roughly 4 guilders. Source: Seba, Catalogus. It is possible that he initially attempted to shape his anatomical museum according to the Ruyschian model. The prices are noted in the copy at the University of Amsterdam Library. Wet specimens, embryos and complex body parts were not mentioned. Cosson and the pharma- cist Taurinus to evaluate the collection on offer.

The integration of the two herbaria, however, would have resulted in a good collection. Bidloo also possessed some exotic animals and presented the English collector and pharmacist James Petiver with a snake. Characteristically, he was the source of only one specimen. Petiver received more than a dozen exotica from Ruysch. In the s, Bidloo did not even keep his cabinets at home, but deposited them at the anatomical theater of the university.

Cabinetten, wanneer men met kleyne kosten een seer completen collectie soude kennen maeken. Gerard Blanken, the custos anatomiae, complained much about the fact that Bidloo did not keep an order among the preparations. Whenever he needed a particular specimen for the purposes of research or education, Bidloo took it out from the cabinet and did not necessarily return it to the same place afterwards. As a result, the servant could no longer ascertain which preparation belonged to Bidloo, and which one to the university.

The professor was therefore ordered by the curators of the university to make a list of his own preparations and then move them back to his own house. He did not immediately comply with the request, and the curators had to remind him a year later. The collection functioned more as a research tool than a showcase of the art of preparation. Since they were not privileged repre- sentations, these specimens did not need to be prepared with the same amount of care and attention that Ruysch devoted to them.

They were not intended to last for centuries and could in principle be thrown away after use. He also owned wet specimens of animals worth guilders 14 stuivers, 24 kidney stones at 18 guilders 15 stui- vers, and 62 bones, skulls and skeletons at guilders 9 stuivers.

Apart from the size of the collection, the price difference was the result of two different factors. Expensive alcohol was a necessary ingredient for the preservative liquid. The prices are noted in a copy in St Petersburg, but not in the British Library. One guilder equals twenty stuivers. Preparations of foetuses offer another opportunity for a comparison.

Three were worth roughly 13 guilders. A fourth one, probably in worse condition, sold for only 7 guilders. Another one sold for 6 guilders, and three specimens fetched only 2 guilders. His name functioned as a valuable brand. At the post-mortem auction of wheat merchant and educational pioneer Lambert ten Kate, the makers of most specimens were not mentioned. The collection of the Ams- terdam physician Abraham van Limburg was sold in Out of Ausdruck vom They fetched 2.

Upon his death, Rau donated it to Leiden University without specifying its financial worth. When the university curators appointed Bernhard Siegfried Albinus to make a catalogue of the collection, he was ordered to throw away worthless duplicates and triplicates. In contrast, the catalogue did not mention any wet preparations of embryos, or larger parts of the human body. Most of the specimens are exquisitely pre- served bones, but their arrangement does not facilitate careful observation.

Several bottles hold so many bones that they occlude each other. The largest and most im- pressive specimen is a wax-injected placenta. Unfortunately, the wax has escaped from the blood vessels at several points and has flooded and dyed large parts of the placenta, making its fine qualities indistinct. He was both an avid book collector and a prolific author whose output ranged from occasional pamphlets to luxury atlases.

His library contained over items that were worth almost guilders Table 3. The folio volumes on medicine, or on natural history, on their own brought in more money than all the anatomical specimens. An average folio volume was worth more than a prepara- tion. Compare the prices of 5. Table 3.

Bidloo, Bibliotheca. He aimed to corner with his publications the same high-end market that Ruysch dominated in the field of preparations. His Anatomia humani corporis was arguably the first major anatomical atlas published since Andreas Vesalius. Bidloo claimed to have dissected almost bodies during the prepara- tions for the atlas. The images were drawn by Lairesse and then cut by Abraham Blooteling, one of the leading engravers of Amsterdam.

An anecdote about Bid- Ausdruck vom King William III dislocated his shoulder during a fall from a horse in , an accident that contributed to his death a few weeks later. Upon hearing about this event, Bidloo rushed to the King, holding the Anatomia humani corporis in one hand and a skeleton in the other, in order to explain what exactly happened during the fall. It cost roughly 30 guilders and was one of the most expensive one-volume, illustrated encyclopedias in contem- porary Europe.

It was also among the most expensive works sent to English bookseller Samuel Smith by his European correspondents. Although it is not known whether it brought in a large profit, the appearance of translations in several lan- guages hints that printers in other countries also considered it a potentially good investment. The original publishers came out with a Dutch translation in London booksellers Samuel Smith and Benjamin Walford contracted with Boom in to publish an English version of the atlas.

They ordered three hundred copies of the illustrations from Boom and hired English surgeon William Cowper for the translation. For the English translation, this number was an impressive print run, given that it was supposed to circulate almost exclusively on the British Isles. Importantly, Boom had to print new impressions off the original plates, which suggests that the transaction did not simply serve to dispose of remainders from the Latin and Dutch editions. Cowper added nine extra plates, emended the text and published it as his own work, literally scraping off the name of Bidloo from the title page.

A simple English translation would not have sold well on the Continent, but a second edition could easily lower the value of the original version. A pamphlet war erupted and Bidloo asked the Royal Society to condemn Cowper. The Royal Society refused to do so and it is 29 Ronjat, Lettre, A few years later, a Russian edition was also planned and a manuscript translation was executed for Peter the Great.

Finally, a new Latin edition was published in Importantly, Bidloo did not start a copyright debate with Blankaart. Expensive atlases could travel, be pirated, and serve as the source of gesunkenes Kulturgut. While none of the prepa- rations survive today, a simple web search reveals more than copies of the Anatomia humani corporis in libraries all around the world.

Conclusion The debate between Bidloo and Ruysch has served to illuminate how epistemo- logical concerns can determine what scientific objects turn into consumer goods that circulate commercially. Although the two anatomists differed on almost any topic, they both agreed that one needed to produce expensive curiosities to become a successful anatomist with a respected social status.

They also concurred that not all products of anatomical research would have a significant financial value. Harold Cook has argued, in turn, that techniques of preparation were originally designed to ensure that commodities would withhold the ravages of time. In similar ways, durable preparations allowed Ruysch to become a successful scientific entrepreneur in the long-distance mar- kets of naturalia.

Anatomical preparations could not capture the variability of nature. They were rigid and static and could not simulate temporal change. Paper, in contrast, was flexible. It also allowed for the juxtaposition of multiple representational techniques. Wax-injected, desiccated and boiled hearts could be displayed on the same page.

Moreover, the variability of nature allowed paper to visualize the particular details of the circulatory system, whose existence was only inferred by reason. Therefore, Bidloo did not subscribe to the abstracting and idealizing tendencies of other enlightened atlases and opposed the mechanical objectivity of anatomical preparations. Instead of relying on learned judgment, he embraced the naturalism of the mental eye.

When nature itself was fickle, the creative imagination of the draughtsmen was unable to lie. They functioned well only within the walls of the laboratory, where they served as disposable tools in the production of more trustworthy paper atlases. The larger public could not trust them as faithful representations of the body, and would not consider them as worthy investments.

He instead invested in the publishing business to produce valuable and curious scientific atlases. One can thus observe a dialectical relationship between paper and preparation. For Ruysch, anatomical preparations had both an epistemological and financial primacy.

They were prized curiosities for collectors in England, in the Nether- lands, in Germany and in Russia.

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If you are using this as a meditation tool, the center point aims at bringing your awareness to a more and more singular point. There are other places that this ratio exists. It is in nature, for example, and quite prolifically displayed. It is in nautilus shells, in the formation of leaves and petals of innumerable plants. The divine ratio shows up in ocean wave patterns, and you guessed it, sound. The way scientists were able to change DNA was by using particular frequencies of sound, which are essentially energetic patterns, which then encode the DNA much like a computer programmer dictates how a software will work on your computer by creating a syntax which it recognizes.

If, in fact, junk DNA holds the keys to opening our true gifts, then it can surely be utilized with sound frequency, to heal us. When we pair these findings with the work of Dr. Emoto Masaru of What the Bleep Do We Know, fame and countless other energy healers that have come forth with their findings in recent years, then we can see why sound, i. If our Wholeness is contained in a singular point, but can expand to include all there is, then the focus on that one point, vibrationally, should heal all that is out of whack, by nature of aligning it with its true nature.

The Sri Yantra is, for certain, a visual representation of primordial knowledge, and sound is its carry signal. First the length of the wall should be measured; its length should be divided into two equal parts. The door should be fixed a little bit nearer towards the northern side from the centre of the wall, as the southern side is not a prosperous one. Similarly the door should be fixed a little bit nearer towards the eastern side from the centre of the wall, as the western side is not a prosperous one.

A house can have the doors on all sides. A house needs doors, windows, shelves and ventilators. These things should be in even number. The door is to be kept opposite to another door. A house should not have three doors. The south-western side of the house is considered to be the mean sides and the north and the eastern sides are considered to be the good sides. Each room should have the doors on Eastern and Northern sides. To fix the doors, wo have to measure the length of the wall and note the Centro of the wall and fix the door.

Each room has two sides mean side and good side. Here is an example:. Small doors and small windows arc to be fixed on the eastern and the northern sides. The level under the threshold on the southern and the western sides should be over and above that of the eastern and northern sides. The level of the floor inside the rooms should be comparatively low and water should go out through the north-east corner. Doors should not be fixed so that they face the roads coming in opposite direction.

If the roads come in opposite direction and face the door, the house may yield to negative results. The house which has its main door on the eastern side is the house with eastern simhadwara the main door. Such a house should have minimum possible extent of site on its southern and western sides. The house may have its verandahs on south and west. There should be adequate height on the southern and the western sides.

The level should be comparatively lower its eastern and northern sides. The water-level should be lower on the eastern and the northern sides. The eastern verandah should be lower in height. The house with eastern simhadwara should have its staircase on the south-east or the south-west Or the north-west corner.

It should not be on the north- east corner. Such a house is to be built leaving the minimum extent of site on its southern side and leaving so many sites on the northern side. It is better to have verandahs on its northern side. The movement of water inside the house should lead to its north-eastern corner, if the house has so much of site on the north, it yields good results and the family prospers.

The staircase again should be on the south-east corner or on the south-west corner or on the north-west corner also. The house that has its main door on the western side is the house with the western simhadwara. To build such a house, we should not leave much space-on the western side. If the owner leaves- much space-on the western side, he may incur huge financial losses, he may undergo mental agony etc.

He may face the danger of becoming iH and may die a premature death The water level inside the house should point to the north-east corner. The owner should leave space to the maximum extent possible in north and east. The stair-case may be on the southern or the western side.

To build such a house, the owner should not leave much space on the western and the southern sides. He should leave the space to the maximum extent possible on the north. He can have verandahs on the northern side. The water flow should lead to the north-east corner. The house should not completely be closed on its northern side.

There may be so much of open space on the eastern side of the house. The stair case should be on the south west or on the north-west. Some people build houses keeping the main door on the south-east corner of the house. In such cases, the dwellers of the house are prone to several troubles including huge financial losses, fire accidents, thefts etc, They may take to gambling, prostitution etc.

The house with its door on the north-east corner leads to so many good results, such as wealth, prosperity. The people who live in such houses become influential, they make many friends, they prosper in business, in such a house, the north-eastern room should be in a lower position comparatively.

Views: 50 The wise man makes his own heaven while the foolish man creates his own hell here and hereafter Views: 78 In the present times, Vastu Shastra is the most commonly used term, especially when it comes to purchasing Atamic awareness is an inward experience India is a land of Sacred traditions and culture. The word Art is inseperable from India.

Subhash C. Therefore, according Connect with us. Views: Conch Pearl. Naga mani — Cobra Pearl. Varaha Mani: Boar Pearl. Gaja Mani: Elephant Pearl. Venu Mani: Bamboo Pearl. Timi Mani: Whale Pearl. Matsya Mani: Fish Pearl. Mega Mani: Cloud Pearl.

Megha Mani: Cloud Pearl. You may like. In their struggles to depict living organisms through the use of dead specimens, they hit on philo- sophically novel concepts of objectivity. Their debates thus echo historical con- Ausdruck vom Their pamphlet war played out in early modern, capitalist Netherlands, where visual representations were busily traded commodi- ties.

The Dutch Golden Age saw the production of over five million paintings, as well as the invention of the telescope, the microscope, mezzotints and color print- ing. Scientific entrepreneurs were eager to exploit and market these inventions to liefhebbers, i.

It is thus no surprise that the age-old debate on the proper representation of human anatomy also had financial overtones. For anatomical preparations, price and epistemological status went hand in hand. Next to the perusal of classical texts and the lectures of professors, university students also attended dissections.

From its foundation, for instance, Leiden University reg- ularly requested suitable cadavers from state authorities to hold anatomy lessons. Forthcoming dissec- tions were advertised in newspapers and commemorated in more than a dozen paintings. Despite their popularity, these lessons often had a limited role in edu- cation and research.

Because the performance was frequently geared towards the entertainment of authorities and paying visitors, students could not discuss con- troversial issues at length. They were also seated at a considerable distance from the dissecting table, behind the rows of professors and municipal officials. For these reasons, the finer details of the human body remained hidden from the public view. In those years, the Flemish nobleman Lodewijk de Bils hit upon a novel method of prepar- ing and preserving human organs.

Unlike fresh cadavers, the pre- served preparations could be examined repeatedly. Since they did not decay, one could hope that the number of specimens in circulation would steadily increase. The discovery raised the interest of medical professionals throughout the Nether- lands.

A group of anatomists at Leiden University, including Reinier de Graaf and Jan Swammerdam, began using oil of turpentine and wax for preparations. Their results were disseminated through the chemical and anatomical textbooks of Stephanus Blankaart and Carel Maets in the s. Born in into a family of civil servants in The Hague, he first trained there as an apothecary.

A few years later he also obtained a medical degree from Leiden. He was elected to the Leopoldine Imperial Academy in , became an F. He died in at the age of Although he was a pharmacy-trained artisan, a scholarly physician and an internationally renowned natural philosopher at various points in his life, he did not clearly com- mit to any of these socio-professional roles.

Thousands of specimens were preserved in bottles, and they filled the shelves of elaborately decorated cabinets Figure 1. They provided a comprehen- sive overview of anatomy including even the minutest organs. On anatomical portraits, see Hansen, Galleries. Ruysch, Alle de werken, frontispiece. Note the presence of anatomical preparations at the front.

He believed that the body was composed exclusively of the vessels of the various circulatory systems. By injecting wax, one could preserve the shape and position of these vessels in their natural state. In the absence of other building blocks, wax could faithfully capture the structure of the whole body.

For Ruysch, wax injection was clearly superior to engraved illustrations on paper because it was an auto-inscription technology that worked according to the notions of mechanical objectivity. Guided by the imagination, the hand of the en- graver could always introduce fictitious elements into paper representations. Sci- entific illustrations, on their own, had no guarantee that they were truthful.

The scientific arguments were always supported by the evidence of a prepared specimen. Avail- able for public viewing, the preparations served as the ultimate arbiter for bringing a controversy to closure. Ruyschian preparations appeared to vanquish the power of death. When the Russian czar was shown the body of a young girl, he thought that she was only asleep and kissed her.

Apart from en- tertaining royalty, the cabinet also served as an excellent educational tool. Anatomical preparations thus trumped other forms of representation in every imaginable scenario, and Ruysch never ceased to praise their marvelous qualities in his publications.

A malicious contemporary, possibly Govard Bidloo, took the pains to count how often Ruysch used the word mirum and its cognates in his relatively brief Epistolae and Observationum cen- turiae. The list ran to 96 occurrences. A copy survives at the British Library, cat.

It also provided a career opportunity for the lithotomist Johannes Rau, who was appointed to the va- cated anatomy chair in Leiden and delivered his inaugural lecture soon afterwards. In this lecture, Rau discussed the best methods for learning anatomy. It was essen- tial that students frequently read the texts of the ancients and the moderns, attend the lectures of the professors and participate in private dissections.

Anatomical preparations were supposed to play only a secondary role. They could offer some guidance in research. The method of wax-injection, however, also distorted the structures of the human body. As it filled the veins and the arteries, it distended the walls of the blood vessels and made them appear bigger than in reality.

No longer transparent, preparations only offered an approximate representation of the human body. In a letter published in the early s, Hermann Boerhaave repeated the claim that preparations enlarged the circulatory system. This shortcoming was decisive for Boer- haave. Based on theoretical arguments, he had already surmised the existence of glands in the human body. In these glands, bodily fluids were mixed and separated like chemical substances in a retort. It was necessary that such structures should exist.

Otherwise, the blood would circulate in the body without undergoing any modification in its composition. Since wax injection potentially suppressed these glands and only visualized the circulatory system, its anatomical use was heavily limited. The existence of glands simply could not be detected with the Ruyschian preparation technique. The Leiden professor instead suggested an al- 7 Rau, Oratio, 9 and Originally invented by Marcello Malpighi, this method relied on the observation that certain illnesses caused the glands to grow into an abnormally large tumor.

These tumors magnified the shape and structure of healthy glands so that they became visible to the human eye. Ruysch was understandably upset by these criticisms and called Boerhaave a redenkonstenaar, i. Instead of trusting the auto-inscription of preparations, Boerhaave mistakenly used reason to theorize and tumors to visualize the glands.

As a surgeon ap- prentice in Amsterdam in the s, he was already acquainted with the higher echelons of society. He was briefly associated with Nil volentibus arduum, a liter- ary society that aimed at modernizing Dutch culture with the precepts of French classicism, and became a medical doctor in While Ruysch established his career with a museum of anatomical specimens, Bidloo put his stakes on the flour- ishing print culture of the Netherlands.

His monumental Anatomia humani corporis came out in , cementing his fame as a medical professional Figure 2. This atlas contained over a hundred folio en- gravings on human anatomy, which were designed by Gerard de Lairesse, the most-praised classicist painter of the period. After various posts, he was appointed professor at Leiden University at the instigation of the King in Left without a patron, Bidloo returned to Leiden where he taught until his death in He instead proposed paper as the ideal for anatomical representation.

His claim was supported by three distinct ar- guments. While preparations were frozen in time, sequential images could rep- resent on paper the changing shape of an active, living organ. Paper also offered the possibility to juxtapose and compare representations produced with various observation techniques, e.

Third, engraved images had a higher resolution than anatomical specimens. They could magnify minute details that not even microscopes could detect. In the early s, Ruysch printed a part of his extensive correspondence with other anatomists. These essays on the internal structure of the spleen, on the branching of the aorta or on the arachneal mater often criticized the plates in the Anatomia humani corporis.

Bidloo did not take these charges lightly and responded in a pamphlet titled Vindiciae quarundam delineationum anatomicarum contra inep- tas animadversiones Fred: Ruyschii. The counter-response came almost immedi- ately. For instance, Bidloo found it problematic that Ruyschian preparations looked alive. Cadavers were dead and no art could bring them back to life. Al- though colored wax could make the cheeks of humans rosy again, the underlying structures were corrupted beyond repair.

Bidloo, Anatomia, frontispiece. Note how the putto on the right holds up a print, presumably an anatomical representation. At stake was the tangled representational relationship between cadavers and animate organisms. For Bidloo, no simple correspondence could be established between the two because the organs of the living body were in motion.

External and internal pressure constantly changed the shape of the heart, the lungs and the skin. Since anatomical preparations, in contrast, were static and rigid, they could not represent temporal change. The preservation of the heart was especially problematic in this respect.

In life, the four chambers regularly contract in a well-determined rhythm. Wax injections, on the other hand, filled, distended and froze the chambers in the state of diastole. The function of the heart was ren- dered incomprehensible through the art of preparations.

Observers would not be able to understand the principles of the circulation system. The rigidity of anatomical preparations was both a philosophical and a phys- iological problem for Bidloo who considered variety and change key constituents of human nature. In , the same year the Anatomia humani corporis appeared, he ridiculed the Nil volentibus arduum because of its adherence to the artificial and rigid rules of Francophile playwrights.

His satire pleaded for a more relaxed interpretation of classicist poetics. Similarly, if a preparation was preserved and kept in the same shape for centuries, it could not properly mirror the changing world of life. The Vindiciae consequently charged Ruysch of too rigid an understanding of the shape of papillary glands in the human skin. Bidloo mistakenly thought that the debate hinged on the definition of pyramidal.

According to him, Ruysch understood pyramidal in a strictly mathematical sense and expected the glands to conform exactly to this well-defined shape. Ruyschian representations of their foramina, i. Sed ineptus sim, et arti Anatomes dirus, si dissimilem atque praelectorem Ruyschium non agnoscam laboriosum, indefessum, die ac nocte rebus intentum anatomicus maxime, intellige, fucandis, adulterandis minio, cocco, cerussa et quavis arte meretricia exornandis: hisce, fateor, se supra communem anatomicorum famam et sortem extulis altissime.

The papillary glands. Bidloo, Vindiciae, 5. Countway Library of Medicine. Nonetheless, each papilla and its opening had a slightly different form that could also change in time as a result of motion, disposition, external pressure and flac- cidity. Consequently, Bidloo preferred to depict a large number of papillae next to each other in a highly particularistic manner so as to show variability Figure 3, Fig. Figure VI could be in- terpreted as a particularistic representation of neighboring papillae whose shapes were subtly different.

Figure I offered a diagrammatic cross-section of the open- ings at the bottom that again accentuated the variability of their forms. Yet I argue that this figure could also be read in another way. It could be interpreted as a cin- ematic representation of how one opening changed its shape with the passage of Ausdruck vom As the human skin was pressed and twisted, the opening grew, shrank and shifted in succession.

Bidloo offered a rational explanation why these organs were so fickle. If the papillae could not change their form, the sense of touch would not have been able to differentiate between the perception of various materials that brushed against the skin. He considered papillae and glands two separate organs. For him, papillae were pyramidal but glands had a globular shape. Definitions were of little importance when two separate organs were conflated into one.

The surface of paper, in contrast, al- lowed Bidloo to set things in motion. He could represent changes to the shape of a papilla in a chronological order. Atlas images reflected the variability of nature better than three-dimensional specimens. Paper had another advantage. It could accommodate different methods of vi- sualization on the same page and provide the reader with the composite result.

In table XXII of his Anatomia humani corporis, Bidloo provided a large number of competing representations of the heart, each of which visualized and emphasized different aspects of the same organ Figures 4 and 5. While Fig. IV adauctaque duplo, eorum magnitudine vide fig.

VI exhibens, patet, cum pro papillarum motu et dispositione, compressione, intumescentia, flacciditate et similibus cor- poris reticularis foraminum figura mutari debeat: ut proponitur, fig. The heart according to Bidloo. Yet boiling was not the best method for the in- vestigation of the ventricles. These chambers could be best seen with the help of desiccated specimens.

Bidloo inserted several quills into a desiccated heart that pierced through the barely visible valves. Thanks to these quills, the connections between the atria and the ventricles were adequately shown. Finally, Fig. Table XXII on the heart thus offered a functional theory of representation.

There was no single method that could transparently depict all building blocks of the heart. The muscles, chambers, valves and blood vessels each required a specific mode of visualization. The blood vessels were shown in the state when they were filled with wax. Yet this representation was only approximate, as Bidloo admitted explicitly, because wax could not reach some blood vessels that were hidden in the muscles and around the bones. In or- der to highlight potential distortions, he even offered a detailed explanation how his method of wax-injection worked.

This way, readers could judge for themselves how this method could produce artifacts. The response did not wait long. Referente Arteriae aortae, cera repletae, in corpore sex post partum mensium infantis quam separatam reservo , praecipuas e trunco distributiones; Minores enim sub involucris, ossibus atque musculis reconditae, cultello persequi saepius non potui.

Ex hac videre est quam diversimode interdum ejus propagines ducantur atque sint situatae. Lubet huic divaricationis descriptioni, modum, quo vasa haec impleantur, ut et quorundam curiositati satisfiat, praefigere. The heart according to Ruysch. Ruysch, Alle de werken.

He must have been afraid that visitors would see how useless they were. Wax-injection was an auto-inscription technique that blindly followed the arteries. Paper, in con- trast, allowed for the intervention of reason in making a faithful representation. And only the dictates of reason could help correctly depict the coronary arteries.

The intervention of reason allows paper to control and rep- resent nature in the form of abstracted diagrams. From a historical perspective, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison have argued that enlightened anatomical at- lases, in particular, retouched images of the body so that they could better accord with the idealism of mathematics and the Classics.

Many of these analyses thus ally the use of paper and reason with an abstracted or idealized representation of nature. It served only to correctly depict chaotic nature in all its whimsical particularities. He claimed that the smaller branches of these arteries could be seen properly neither with a mi- croscope nor with the help of a preparation.

Yet reason postulated the existence of these branches because, together with the capillaries, they were needed to connect the arteries to the veins. How could one then visualize these barely visible struc- tures? He offered a particularistic representa- tion of the blood vessels with a plethora of idiosyncratic detail. The aorta and the coronary arteries according to Bidloo. Of the two branched vessels, the right one disappeared inside the heart.

The left one, in contrast, again branched into four smaller arteries. Why did Bidloo de- pict four of these small, practically invisible arteries, and not three or five? At and beneath the microscopic level, the structure of the circulatory system continuously varied from person to person. Some coronary arteries mean- dered to the right, others to the left.

For the color, see Seashell color.

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Albertus seba shells and corals betting From vanitas to veneration. Show less Left without a patron, Bidloo returned to Leiden where he taught until his death in However, some seashell collectors warn that using bleach can destroy the colour of your shells and make them smell like bleach forever. He offered a particularistic representa- tion of the blood vessels with a plethora of idiosyncratic detail.
2021 rose bowl betting odds Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link. It cost roughly 30 guilders and was one of the most expensive one-volume, illustrated encyclopedias in contem- porary Europe. Since anatomical preparations, in contrast, were static and rigid, they could not represent temporal change. Why did Bidloo de- pict four of these small, practically invisible arteries, and not three or five? Outside the 'star' you will see the Easter Lily, a sign of Jesus' Resurrection. Similarly, you can use WD From a historical perspective, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison have argued that enlightened anatomical at- lases, in particular, retouched images of the body so that they could better accord with the idealism of mathematics and the Classics.
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Seba promoted his collection with the head-physician to Peter the Great, Robert Erskine — , and in early Peter the Great bought the complete collection. In the following several years, Seba managed to develop another collection of natural specimens, which grew more extensive than the first.

With Seba as an intermediate, Frederik Ruysch , a well-known Amsterdam physician and anatomist, also sold his collection to the tsar. Both collections formed the core of the Kunstkammer , the first Russian public museum founded by Peter the Great in In , he had published a Thesaurus of animal specimens with beautiful engravings.

The full name of the Thesaurus is, with a dual Latin — Dutch title, Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio — Naaukeurige beschryving van het schatryke kabinet der voornaamste seldzaamheden der natuur Accurate description of the very rich thesaurus of the principal and rarest natural objects.

The last two of the four volumes were published after his death and Today, the original plate volume is on permanent exhibit at the Koninklijke Bibliotheek in The Hague , Netherlands. In , Taschen Books published a reprint of the Thesaurus , with a second printing in In Carl Linnaeus visited Seba twice. Linnaeus found Seba's collection to be useful for the classification system which Linnaeus was developing, and Linnaeus used many of Seba's specimens as holotypes for original descriptions of species.

Seba himself did not use Linnaeus' taxonomy, as it was published only a year before his death. However, he did organize his Thesaurus by physical similarities, leading to some similarities with Linnaeus' larger project. In , several years after Seba's death, his second collection went on auction in Amsterdam. Several objects were purchased by the Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Seba is commemorated in the scientific names of two species and one subspecies of snakes: Ninia sebae , Python sebae , and Oxyrhopus petola sebae.

Huybrechts Engraving depicting different views of the hedgehog in the Thesaurus. The Hamburg Hydra , from the Thesaurus From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Dutch pharmacist, zoologist, and collector. This article includes a list of general references , but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations.

It was this second collection that Seba would have published into a four-volume series known as the Thesaurus. This was a monumental effort, the likes of which had never before been attempted at such a grand scale. The first volume appeared in and covered everything from plants and mammals to birds and reptiles. Sadly, Seba would not live to see the publication of any further volumes in his natural history magnum opus, dying in at the age of After his death, the collection had to be auctioned off in pieces to finance the completion of his project, and, in , the world was treated to Volume 3 , which covered a variety of marine invertebrates and fishes, followed by Volume 4 in , which featured insects and minerals.

When the Thesaurus was finally completed, it contained a remarkable plates which illustrated thousands of specimens, most of which would have not previously appeared in print. But the illustrations are for the most part so beautifully and accurately drawn that there is generally no trouble identifying the species discussed. Fallours is rightly credited with producing the first color illustrations of Pacific marinelife, but his idiosyncratic drawing technique is so highly stylized as to be cartoonish.

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