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Jhang investment inc

Further analysis showed that these wealth-based differentials remained significant even after controlling for mother's education and a range of other variables [ 2 ]. These findings were consistent Pakistani women's reports of the lack of affordability being one of the two main reasons for not delivering in a health facility [ 6 ]. In August , a demand-side financing project was initiated. Outreach workers were hired and trained in promoting the use of maternal health services in 11 union councils of Jhang representing an estimated population of , Highly subsidized services, which could be accessed via vouchers, were delivered between January and December The objective of the project was to determine whether a demand-side financing intervention could increase the utilization of ANC, PNC, institutional delivery, and family planning among poor women in Jhang.

The Jhang voucher scheme aimed to provide a package of maternity care and family planning services to 4, women in the two poorest quintiles in Jhang district. Based on the crude birth rate of The package of services available to study participants included three ANC visits, a normal delivery visit combined with a PNC visit, a referral for a caesarian-section, a PNC visit following the caesarian-section and a postnatal family planning visit.

Each service was provided through a coupon in the voucher booklet. Providers who received caesarian-section referrals were reimbursed by the project. The family planning visit could be used by the client to receive counseling or to receive a method. The booklet also contained two coupons for maternal tetanus shots which were to be provided when the mother came for an ANC visit and two coupons to enable clients to get their complete blood count and an ultrasound examination.

Many rural areas of Pakistan such as Jhang suffer from limited availability of skilled maternal health providers. Public sector facilities such as Basic Health Units, Rural Health Centers, Tehsil and District headquarter hospitals provide maternal and child health services but are often underutilized for a variety of reasons including inadequate management, non-availability of female staff, shortage of medicine, low motivation levels of service providers and restricted hours of operation office hours for public sector providers are from 8 am to 2 pm [ 5 ].

Some providers establish their private practice after completing several years of service in the public sector. Other public sector providers maintain a private practice during their off-duty hours. Although public sector facilities are supposed to provide services for free, the vast majority of public facilities charge for services. Private facilities operate on an explicit fee for service basis.

Pakistani women who can afford to pay for services exhibit a clear preference for the private sector: more than two thirds of women who have an institutional delivery, deliver in a private health facility [ 4 , 6 ]. Providers selected for the voucher scheme were part of a network managed by Greenstar Social Marketing, a Pakistani NGO with a network of 7, participating providers trained in the provision of ANC, PNC, obstetric care, neonatal care, child care, and family planning services [ 14 ].

Based on an assessment of their structural capacity to provide quality maternal health services facility cleanliness, infection prevention procedures, equipped labor room providers were pre-approved for provision of services under this scheme. Twenty-three of the providers participating in the project were Lady Health Visitors paramedics with 18 months of training in primary health care service provision, including maternity care and five were physicians trained to conduct caesarian sections.

Seven of the 28 providers also practiced in the public sector. A quality improvement program was initiated with a quality improvement officer an experienced Lady Health Visitor using structured instruments to observe and assess the quality of ANC, PNC and family planning service provision and training providers in the use of the partograph. After the initial assessment of the quality of service provision, the quality improvement officer made monthly supportive supervision visits during which she observed care provision and discussed how providers could improve the quality of care provided.

To ensure sufficient reach of voucher-paid services within the project area, the primary basis for the selection of union councils for the project was the presence of Greenstar-trained providers. No mass media was used to promote the vouchers. Promotion consisted of home visits by outreach workers during which outreach workers talked to pregnant women about the importance of institutional delivery and follow-up of women during and after pregnancy.

The "product" was the package of maternal health services provided to poor women by eliminating the "monetary price" of the services offered, and by providing social support to the woman and her family to allow the delivery to occur in a health facility. Voucher booklets were distributed by outreach workers to women who met the poverty selection criteria established by the project.

Thirteen project outreach workers, women with matriculate or higher level education who had previously worked as school-teachers or had worked for other NGOs, conducted the identification of voucher recipients using a tool developed by the World Bank for Pakistan. The Poverty Scorecard for Pakistan asks 13 questions on ownership of assets e. The maximum score that can be obtained by a household on the scorecard is points; households which score 24 points or below are considered poor.

A slightly less stringent standard was used for the selection of voucher recipients for this project in order to reduce the cost of identification both in terms of the time and the resources that would be needed to contact a larger number of households if a stricter criterion were used : pregnant women scoring 33 points or below were considered eligible for the voucher booklet.

Eligible women could purchase voucher booklets for a nominal price of Rs. Each of 13 outreach workers was given a target of identifying about pregnant women who would be eligible to purchase the highly subsidized services offered by the project. To identify poor households, outreach workers conducted a rapid identification survey of households using the Poverty Scorecard in project union councils between mid-August and mid-November Voucher distribution began in mid-November.

The identification survey was continued until pregnant women were identified by each outreach worker. After being identified as a potential voucher recipient, a pregnant woman was informed about the voucher scheme and asked about her willingness to purchase a booklet for Rs.

The sale of booklets was planned after the identification of eligible women. Hence, information on women interested in purchasing vouchers was entered into a Pregnant Woman Registration form. Sale of voucher booklets to eligible women began in November Multiple visits needed to be made to households with largely uneducated rural women who did not have previous exposure to such a scheme to explain how the voucher scheme functioned and to persuade them to deliver in a health facility.

The voucher booklet contained coupons for services that clients were entitled to receive upon purchase of the booklet. Each page of the voucher booklet had two identical, serialized coupons, one of which would be torn off by the provider and submitted to Greenstar after the service had been provided.

The second coupon would remain attached to the booklet as a record of service utilization. Greenstar would reimburse providers at an agreed-upon rate for individual services within a month of coupon submission. Providers were paid a service charge of Rs. The provider payment for the PNC visit was combined with the payment for a normal delivery in order to encourage providers to keep a new mother at the facility for 24 hours after delivery-a high risk period for both the mother and the newborn.

The provider payment for the caesarian delivery was Rs. The provider service charge for the family planning visit was Rs. Women who received services were reimbursed for their transportation cost by the provider at the following rates: Rs. A client could be counseled about birth spacing and receive a reversible contraceptive method such as an oral contraceptive, an injectable, a condom or an intrauterine device IUD through the coupon. Provider reimbursements for other services were as following: Rs.

Greenstar reimbursed providers for transportation payments made by providers to women who received services. If a tetanus shot was provided at the time of the ANC visit, the total reimbursement was Rs. Supervisors determined the validity of provider claims by randomly selecting and visiting the homes of women who had received voucher-paid services to determine whether they had indeed received services and whether they had been reimbursed for transportation costs by the provider.

Three Field Supervisors and the Project Manager used Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to randomly select women who had received services through the project for follow-up. This enabled the project to check the veracity of a sample of claims at the time that claims were submitted. The Greenstar finance department transferred funds directly to provider bank accounts after the approval of individual claims.

Two follow-up contacts were also made by outreach workers to determine whether booklet purchasers were using voucher-paid services. The first of these was in July-August All 4, women who had been sold voucher booklets were re-contacted and asked about which services they had used. Their satisfaction with the services used was determined. Women who could still utilize unused coupons were encouraged to use the remaining services. The second follow-up contact was made in October-November In September , a survey was commissioned to an independent market research agency to determine the validity of coupon utilization information in the MIS.

Using the addresses of voucher recipients in the project MIS, interviewers from the research agency visited the homes of women out of 3, women who had delivered according to project records by September The study was designed to determine whether the increase in service utilization was greater among poor women i. A union council is the smallest administrative unit in Pakistan with a population usually varying between 25, and 30, The study does not assume that all deliveries among poor women were through the use of vouchers.

Indeed, the baseline household survey shows that about one-third of poor women were delivering in a health facility prior to the start of the voucher scheme. The study does assume that significant changes in institutional delivery among poor women in the intervention union councils, when not matched by significant changes among poor women in the control union councils, reflect the effects of the voucher scheme. The assessment compares intervention and control union councils in terms of changes in the utilization of maternal health services during the month period in which voucher-paid services were provided to the month preceding the voucher scheme.

Household survey data was collected in intervention and control union councils. The baseline household survey was conducted from November 16, to December 10, A five-days training was given to interviewers prior to data collection. This included classroom training, mock interviews and supervised practice interviews in the field. Data was collected from 10 intervention union councils and 10 adjacent union councils serving as controls. Within each union council, multiple random starting points were chosen, and households were listed prior to the selection of eligible respondents.

At the household level, a listing was done of married women years who delivered in the last 12 months. A Kish-grid was used to randomly select one mother from each household. Using this approach, one hundred mothers who had delivered in the last months were randomly selected from each union council.

In total, 2, mothers were interviewed for the baseline study. The same approach was used to collect the follow-up household survey data. The follow-up survey was conducted from December 8, to January 8, in the same 20 intervention and control union councils. A total of 2, mothers were interviewed for the follow-up study. There was little variation in the population sizes of the 20 intervention and control union councils.

Accordingly, no weights were attached to the data. Both surveys were conducted by AcNielsen Pakistan Pvt. For institutional delivery, women were coded as '1' if they delivered at a health facility and coded '0' if they delivered at home.

For family planning use, women were coded '1'if they were using family planning at the time of the survey and '0' otherwise. All independent variables included in the analysis are supported by prior literature on the determinants of ANC use, institutional delivery, PNC use and family planning use and were significant predictors of these outcomes in Jhang [ 2 ] and elsewhere in the Punjab [ 9 ].

Variables included in the analysis of ANC, institutional delivery, PNC and family planning are mother's age categorized as 24 years or younger, years, and 30 years or older , parity number of living children , mother's education none, primary, middle, secondary, matriculate or higher , wealth quintiles, travel time to the nearest health facility within 15 minutes , and frequency of television viewership daily or less often.

Wealth quintiles were created in a manner similar to their creation for the Demographic and Health Surveys [ 16 ]. Factor analysis was used to create a wealth factor score, which was divided into quintiles. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. Models were tested to determine whether differentials in utilization of each of the services ANC, delivery at a health facility, PNC, family planning between the bottom two quintiles and the first quintile diminished more in the intervention area than in the control area between baseline and follow-up surveys.

Independent variables were introduced in stages. The first model, Model 1, included dummy variables for wealth quintiles, a variable indicating whether the respondent belonged to the intervention or control group, and a variable indicating whether the respondent was interviewed pre-intervention or post-intervention. This model shows differentials in service utilization between the fifth and the first quintiles, and between the fourth and the first quintiles prior to adjusting for other variables.

Model 2 adjusts for maternal factors age, parity, maternal education and other factors travel time to the nearest health facility and frequency of television viewership. Model 3 includes an interaction between intervention group, time, and fifth quintile-which tests the null hypothesis that the change in service utilization between women in the fifth and the first quintiles is not significantly different between intervention and control union councils.

The finding of a statistically significant difference will result in the rejection of the null hypothesis. Similarly, Model 4 includes an interaction which tests the null hypothesis that the change in service utilization between the fourth and the first quintiles is not significantly different between intervention and control union councils.

The multi-stage design of the survey is taken into account in the statistical analysis by using the cluster option in STATA 10 [ 17 ]. About two-fifths of women in the sample were under 25 years of age. Slightly more than one-fifth had one child and about one-fifth had five or more children. There were no significant differences between women in the intervention and control union councils in terms of age or parity.

A broadly similar pattern was observed for institutional delivery. PNC use increased among poor women in the intervention area. No change in PNC use was observed among women in the same wealth quintiles in the control union councils. There was no evidence of an increase in family planning use among women in the fourth or fifth quintiles in the intervention union councils.

The findings are from logistic regression analyses. Model 1 tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference in institutional delivery between the poor women in the fifth or fourth quintiles and the non-poor. These findings result in the rejection of the null hypothesis: there are significant differentials in institutional delivery between the poor and non-poor. Model 2 tests the null hypothesis that differentials in institutional delivery between the poor and non-poor disappear after controlling for education and access to services.

Thus, while some of the effects of being in the fourth or fifth quintiles on institutional delivery could be explained by the lower education and higher parity of women in these quintiles, poverty had an independent effect on institutional delivery. These findings lead to the rejection of the second hypothesis: differentials in institutional delivery between the poor and non-poor are independent of the lower education of the poor or lower access to services among the poor.

Model 3 tests the hypothesis that the change in institutional delivery between women in the fifth quintile and women in the first quintile was not different between intervention and control union councils. The finding of a statistically significant, positive odds ratio would lead to the rejection of the null hypothesis. Model 4 tests the hypothesis that the change in institutional delivery between women in the fourth quintile or women in the first quintile was not significantly greater in intervention than in control union councils.

In other words, these findings lead to a rejection of the null hypothesis. Model 1 shows the substantial differentials in utilization of ANC between women in the bottom two quintiles and women in the first quintile. Sign up. New member. Schweiz DE. Suisse FR. United Kingdom. United States. Latest News.

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That Is A Prime Location Added: 18 months ago Updated: 16 months ago. Added: 30 months ago. PKR 25 Thousand. PKR 26 Thousand. Added: 30 months ago Updated: 30 months ago. PKR 60 Thousand. The House is Added: 15 months ago. PKR 1. Some may see this as the second-best proxy to spending time together in the same meeting room, but in some ways, a good digital counterpart is even better because the information is captured in good fidelity and outlives the duration of the meeting.

These days, I am actively experimenting with AI and robotics to further enhance how we work. We acquired telepresence robots so a remote attendee can have a higher fidelity of telepresence. The next iteration of digitization and new business design thinking will lead to amazing enhancements to our work productivity, especially when working in a distributed environment.

I have discussed at length what tools and techniques can be leveraged to make a business run more efficiently across distributed sites. But, it is also important to challenge the norms of our business to take it to the next level. For example, one of the very common and painful bottlenecks of a consulting business is that the sales process can be very time consuming, resource intensive, and inefficient. Generally, it revolves around identifying and pursuing an opportunity and then creating a proposal to address a formal or informal request for proposal from a client.

Practice development. You build a practice with certain expertise based on your target market. Observe market opportunities; come up with ideas, analyze them and develop a relevant and viable approach or solution that you can pitch to clients. Business development. You find and make your pitch to a client that can benefit from your approach or solution and is willing to pay for it. Engagement delivery. You enter into a contract with a client and implement your approach or solution.

This means going beyond who happens to be available in your office and instead engaging the right people that can move the needle. More lead time for a proposal merely means more time to procrastinate. Few proposal efforts wrap up early, if ever.

Is this something that we can do? What positions us competitively? Where have we done this before? What is a good approach for delivering the client-requested work: phases, key activities, and deliverables? Who can deliver this work, and how should they be organized? How much time and money would it take to make this happen? How should the proposal effort be organized?

Any other documentation is optional. With this new approach, we eventually got to the point where most proposals were completed within days or weeks rather than months. The approach significantly lowered the cost of sales and increased our overall bandwidth for additional business pursuits. We began leveraging this type of approach across many aspects of what we did.

Here are some more tips for founders with a distributed workforce:. Teams or people with high work-related affinity should be kept together geographically if possible. The leadership team should be together. The product management and engineering teams should be together. The speed of iteration and intimate understanding of each other that you get in the same time zone are priceless. For scarce expertise that may limit your ability to scale, however, boldly look around the globe.

These tools can be applicable to any organization operating with knowledge workers and specialists. Otherwise, even the greatest business ideas may get suffocated by archaic and nonsensical practices.

Some amazing opportunities to invent a great business lie therein. Reading time — 9 min Richard Jhang on running a consulting business with remote teams. Speeding up iterations at a remote consulting team 1. Into the world of consulting. Designing a distributed business. Beyond tools and techniques. Managing a distributed startup.

Anna Savina Author. Melissa Suzuno Author. Brian Flaherty Photographer. Into the world of consulting and entrepreneurship I started out at a startup tech company, but around 20 years ago, I began my consulting career at a high-tech boutique firm that focused on building a huge technology infrastructure. Designing a distributed business Currently, about half the StratMinds team is distributed.

Key techniques for distributed teams Outsource and automate Managing a distributed business poses a greater logistical challenge than managing everything at the same site. Visualize Visualization is a common language for us all. Use multiple channels You need to offer people multiple communication channels so they can find what best suits them. Beyond tools and techniques I have discussed at length what tools and techniques can be leveraged to make a business run more efficiently across distributed sites.

A consulting business consists of:. We decided to fix this painful process and found three primary issues that we had to deal with: — We had to quickly route an opportunity to the right team.

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Recently published studies from Pakistan and Bangladesh provide stronger evidence of voucher programs being able to target the poor. One study assessed the impact of demand-side financing strategy on increasing the use of maternal health services among low-income women in the urban center of one of the least developed districts in the Punjab: the study found that institutional delivery increased by 22 percentage points among voucher recipients; there was a substantial decline in the differential in institutional delivery between the fifth and the first quintiles [ 9 ].

A study in Bangladesh which analyzed the effects of a "universal" voucher scheme targeting pregnant women of parity 1 and 2 from all socio-economic groups found that the scheme's implementation was associated with reduced inequity in institutional delivery. Moreover, poor women were substantially more likely to take advantage of the voucher scheme than non-poor women [ 10 ]. This study assesses the impact of a demand-side financing intervention that sought to increase institutional deliveries among poor women defined for this study as women in the two poorest quintiles in a predominantly rural district of the Pakistani Punjab.

The intervention addressed both financial and non-financial barriers to delivery care. The study determines whether the decline in wealth-based differentials in utilization of maternal health services was greater in the intervention than in the control area during the period in which the intervention was implemented. In , it had an estimated population of 2. Further analysis showed that these wealth-based differentials remained significant even after controlling for mother's education and a range of other variables [ 2 ].

These findings were consistent Pakistani women's reports of the lack of affordability being one of the two main reasons for not delivering in a health facility [ 6 ]. In August , a demand-side financing project was initiated. Outreach workers were hired and trained in promoting the use of maternal health services in 11 union councils of Jhang representing an estimated population of , Highly subsidized services, which could be accessed via vouchers, were delivered between January and December The objective of the project was to determine whether a demand-side financing intervention could increase the utilization of ANC, PNC, institutional delivery, and family planning among poor women in Jhang.

The Jhang voucher scheme aimed to provide a package of maternity care and family planning services to 4, women in the two poorest quintiles in Jhang district. Based on the crude birth rate of The package of services available to study participants included three ANC visits, a normal delivery visit combined with a PNC visit, a referral for a caesarian-section, a PNC visit following the caesarian-section and a postnatal family planning visit.

Each service was provided through a coupon in the voucher booklet. Providers who received caesarian-section referrals were reimbursed by the project. The family planning visit could be used by the client to receive counseling or to receive a method. The booklet also contained two coupons for maternal tetanus shots which were to be provided when the mother came for an ANC visit and two coupons to enable clients to get their complete blood count and an ultrasound examination.

Many rural areas of Pakistan such as Jhang suffer from limited availability of skilled maternal health providers. Public sector facilities such as Basic Health Units, Rural Health Centers, Tehsil and District headquarter hospitals provide maternal and child health services but are often underutilized for a variety of reasons including inadequate management, non-availability of female staff, shortage of medicine, low motivation levels of service providers and restricted hours of operation office hours for public sector providers are from 8 am to 2 pm [ 5 ].

Some providers establish their private practice after completing several years of service in the public sector. Other public sector providers maintain a private practice during their off-duty hours. Although public sector facilities are supposed to provide services for free, the vast majority of public facilities charge for services.

Private facilities operate on an explicit fee for service basis. Pakistani women who can afford to pay for services exhibit a clear preference for the private sector: more than two thirds of women who have an institutional delivery, deliver in a private health facility [ 4 , 6 ]. Providers selected for the voucher scheme were part of a network managed by Greenstar Social Marketing, a Pakistani NGO with a network of 7, participating providers trained in the provision of ANC, PNC, obstetric care, neonatal care, child care, and family planning services [ 14 ].

Based on an assessment of their structural capacity to provide quality maternal health services facility cleanliness, infection prevention procedures, equipped labor room providers were pre-approved for provision of services under this scheme. Twenty-three of the providers participating in the project were Lady Health Visitors paramedics with 18 months of training in primary health care service provision, including maternity care and five were physicians trained to conduct caesarian sections.

Seven of the 28 providers also practiced in the public sector. A quality improvement program was initiated with a quality improvement officer an experienced Lady Health Visitor using structured instruments to observe and assess the quality of ANC, PNC and family planning service provision and training providers in the use of the partograph. After the initial assessment of the quality of service provision, the quality improvement officer made monthly supportive supervision visits during which she observed care provision and discussed how providers could improve the quality of care provided.

To ensure sufficient reach of voucher-paid services within the project area, the primary basis for the selection of union councils for the project was the presence of Greenstar-trained providers. No mass media was used to promote the vouchers. Promotion consisted of home visits by outreach workers during which outreach workers talked to pregnant women about the importance of institutional delivery and follow-up of women during and after pregnancy.

The "product" was the package of maternal health services provided to poor women by eliminating the "monetary price" of the services offered, and by providing social support to the woman and her family to allow the delivery to occur in a health facility. Voucher booklets were distributed by outreach workers to women who met the poverty selection criteria established by the project.

Thirteen project outreach workers, women with matriculate or higher level education who had previously worked as school-teachers or had worked for other NGOs, conducted the identification of voucher recipients using a tool developed by the World Bank for Pakistan. The Poverty Scorecard for Pakistan asks 13 questions on ownership of assets e. The maximum score that can be obtained by a household on the scorecard is points; households which score 24 points or below are considered poor.

A slightly less stringent standard was used for the selection of voucher recipients for this project in order to reduce the cost of identification both in terms of the time and the resources that would be needed to contact a larger number of households if a stricter criterion were used : pregnant women scoring 33 points or below were considered eligible for the voucher booklet. Eligible women could purchase voucher booklets for a nominal price of Rs.

Each of 13 outreach workers was given a target of identifying about pregnant women who would be eligible to purchase the highly subsidized services offered by the project. To identify poor households, outreach workers conducted a rapid identification survey of households using the Poverty Scorecard in project union councils between mid-August and mid-November Voucher distribution began in mid-November. The identification survey was continued until pregnant women were identified by each outreach worker.

After being identified as a potential voucher recipient, a pregnant woman was informed about the voucher scheme and asked about her willingness to purchase a booklet for Rs. The sale of booklets was planned after the identification of eligible women. Hence, information on women interested in purchasing vouchers was entered into a Pregnant Woman Registration form. Sale of voucher booklets to eligible women began in November Multiple visits needed to be made to households with largely uneducated rural women who did not have previous exposure to such a scheme to explain how the voucher scheme functioned and to persuade them to deliver in a health facility.

The voucher booklet contained coupons for services that clients were entitled to receive upon purchase of the booklet. Each page of the voucher booklet had two identical, serialized coupons, one of which would be torn off by the provider and submitted to Greenstar after the service had been provided. The second coupon would remain attached to the booklet as a record of service utilization.

Greenstar would reimburse providers at an agreed-upon rate for individual services within a month of coupon submission. Providers were paid a service charge of Rs. The provider payment for the PNC visit was combined with the payment for a normal delivery in order to encourage providers to keep a new mother at the facility for 24 hours after delivery-a high risk period for both the mother and the newborn.

The provider payment for the caesarian delivery was Rs. The provider service charge for the family planning visit was Rs. Women who received services were reimbursed for their transportation cost by the provider at the following rates: Rs. A client could be counseled about birth spacing and receive a reversible contraceptive method such as an oral contraceptive, an injectable, a condom or an intrauterine device IUD through the coupon. Provider reimbursements for other services were as following: Rs.

Greenstar reimbursed providers for transportation payments made by providers to women who received services. If a tetanus shot was provided at the time of the ANC visit, the total reimbursement was Rs. Supervisors determined the validity of provider claims by randomly selecting and visiting the homes of women who had received voucher-paid services to determine whether they had indeed received services and whether they had been reimbursed for transportation costs by the provider.

Three Field Supervisors and the Project Manager used Lot Quality Assurance Sampling to randomly select women who had received services through the project for follow-up. This enabled the project to check the veracity of a sample of claims at the time that claims were submitted. The Greenstar finance department transferred funds directly to provider bank accounts after the approval of individual claims. Two follow-up contacts were also made by outreach workers to determine whether booklet purchasers were using voucher-paid services.

The first of these was in July-August All 4, women who had been sold voucher booklets were re-contacted and asked about which services they had used. Their satisfaction with the services used was determined. Women who could still utilize unused coupons were encouraged to use the remaining services. The second follow-up contact was made in October-November In September , a survey was commissioned to an independent market research agency to determine the validity of coupon utilization information in the MIS.

Using the addresses of voucher recipients in the project MIS, interviewers from the research agency visited the homes of women out of 3, women who had delivered according to project records by September The study was designed to determine whether the increase in service utilization was greater among poor women i.

A union council is the smallest administrative unit in Pakistan with a population usually varying between 25, and 30, The study does not assume that all deliveries among poor women were through the use of vouchers. Indeed, the baseline household survey shows that about one-third of poor women were delivering in a health facility prior to the start of the voucher scheme.

The study does assume that significant changes in institutional delivery among poor women in the intervention union councils, when not matched by significant changes among poor women in the control union councils, reflect the effects of the voucher scheme. The assessment compares intervention and control union councils in terms of changes in the utilization of maternal health services during the month period in which voucher-paid services were provided to the month preceding the voucher scheme.

Household survey data was collected in intervention and control union councils. The baseline household survey was conducted from November 16, to December 10, A five-days training was given to interviewers prior to data collection. This included classroom training, mock interviews and supervised practice interviews in the field. Data was collected from 10 intervention union councils and 10 adjacent union councils serving as controls.

Within each union council, multiple random starting points were chosen, and households were listed prior to the selection of eligible respondents. At the household level, a listing was done of married women years who delivered in the last 12 months. A Kish-grid was used to randomly select one mother from each household. Using this approach, one hundred mothers who had delivered in the last months were randomly selected from each union council. In total, 2, mothers were interviewed for the baseline study.

The same approach was used to collect the follow-up household survey data. The follow-up survey was conducted from December 8, to January 8, in the same 20 intervention and control union councils. A total of 2, mothers were interviewed for the follow-up study. There was little variation in the population sizes of the 20 intervention and control union councils. Accordingly, no weights were attached to the data.

Both surveys were conducted by AcNielsen Pakistan Pvt. For institutional delivery, women were coded as '1' if they delivered at a health facility and coded '0' if they delivered at home. For family planning use, women were coded '1'if they were using family planning at the time of the survey and '0' otherwise. All independent variables included in the analysis are supported by prior literature on the determinants of ANC use, institutional delivery, PNC use and family planning use and were significant predictors of these outcomes in Jhang [ 2 ] and elsewhere in the Punjab [ 9 ].

Variables included in the analysis of ANC, institutional delivery, PNC and family planning are mother's age categorized as 24 years or younger, years, and 30 years or older , parity number of living children , mother's education none, primary, middle, secondary, matriculate or higher , wealth quintiles, travel time to the nearest health facility within 15 minutes , and frequency of television viewership daily or less often.

Wealth quintiles were created in a manner similar to their creation for the Demographic and Health Surveys [ 16 ]. Factor analysis was used to create a wealth factor score, which was divided into quintiles. Logistic regression was used for the analysis. Models were tested to determine whether differentials in utilization of each of the services ANC, delivery at a health facility, PNC, family planning between the bottom two quintiles and the first quintile diminished more in the intervention area than in the control area between baseline and follow-up surveys.

Independent variables were introduced in stages. The first model, Model 1, included dummy variables for wealth quintiles, a variable indicating whether the respondent belonged to the intervention or control group, and a variable indicating whether the respondent was interviewed pre-intervention or post-intervention.

This model shows differentials in service utilization between the fifth and the first quintiles, and between the fourth and the first quintiles prior to adjusting for other variables. Model 2 adjusts for maternal factors age, parity, maternal education and other factors travel time to the nearest health facility and frequency of television viewership. Model 3 includes an interaction between intervention group, time, and fifth quintile-which tests the null hypothesis that the change in service utilization between women in the fifth and the first quintiles is not significantly different between intervention and control union councils.

The finding of a statistically significant difference will result in the rejection of the null hypothesis. Similarly, Model 4 includes an interaction which tests the null hypothesis that the change in service utilization between the fourth and the first quintiles is not significantly different between intervention and control union councils.

The multi-stage design of the survey is taken into account in the statistical analysis by using the cluster option in STATA 10 [ 17 ]. About two-fifths of women in the sample were under 25 years of age. Slightly more than one-fifth had one child and about one-fifth had five or more children.

There were no significant differences between women in the intervention and control union councils in terms of age or parity. A broadly similar pattern was observed for institutional delivery. PNC use increased among poor women in the intervention area. No change in PNC use was observed among women in the same wealth quintiles in the control union councils. There was no evidence of an increase in family planning use among women in the fourth or fifth quintiles in the intervention union councils.

The findings are from logistic regression analyses. Model 1 tests the null hypothesis that there is no difference in institutional delivery between the poor women in the fifth or fourth quintiles and the non-poor. These findings result in the rejection of the null hypothesis: there are significant differentials in institutional delivery between the poor and non-poor.

Top News. Top Fundamentals. Top Technicals. Top Movers. Investment selections. Technical Rankings. Fundamental Rankings. Stock Screener Home. MarketScreener tools. Dynamic chart. Our Services. MarketScreener Portfolios. Add to my list. Shakarganj Limited is principally engaged in the manufacture, purchase and sale of sugar, bio fuel, building materials and yarn textile , and generation and sale of electricity bio power.

It transforms renewable crops, such as sugarcane and cotton into products, including refined sugar, textiles, bio fuel and building materials. The Company generates bio power from biogas. It produces various types of sugar, including pharmaceutical, beverage and commercial grades sugar, as well as soft brown sugar, castor and icing sugar, sugar cubes, sachets and retail packs. It offers rectified bio fuel for industrial and food grades, anhydrous bio fuel for fuel grade, and extra neutral bio fuel for pharmaceutical and perfume grades.

Its farming crops include sugarcane, wheat, gram, maize, fodder and seasonal vegetables. The Company's manufacturing facilities are located at District Jhang. Shakarganj Ltd. Sector Food Processing. A Connections : Shakarganj Limited. All rights reserved. Log in E-mail. Business Summary. Number of employees : 1 people. Sales per Business.

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128 Kanal Agriculture Land For Sale Jhang Chiniot Road, Jhang Future Investment

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JHANG INVESTMENT INC. (UBI No: ) was incorporated on 10/29/​ in Washington. Their business is recorded as WA PROFIT CORPORATION. Free and open company data on Washington (US) company JHANG INVESTMENT INC. (company number ), UNITED STATES. The filling date of company JHANG INVESTMENT INC. is 29th October and expiration day is 31st October Company is incorporated on29th October.