Originally defined as the audio format of the MPEG-1 standard. Germany is responsible for introducing the concept of Industry 4. Industry 4. A focus on MR is within the pillars, especially evident in the clean growth pillar section—efficient. The five priority areas identified in the survey are 1 materials for transport, 2 materials for health care, 3 materials for energy, 4 materials for ICT, and 5 materials for demanding environments.
Among its goals are a comprehensive upgrade of manufacturing in China to be innovation-driven, more efficient and integrated, emphasize quality over quantity, and raise the domestic content of core components of and materials to 40 percent by and to 70 percent by It highlights 10 priority sectors: 1 new information technology, 2 automated machine tools and robotics, 3 aerospace and aeronautical equipment, 4 maritime equipment and high-tech shipping, 5 modern rails transport equipment, 6 new-energy vehicles and equipment, 7 power equipment, 8 agricultural equipment, 9 new materials, and 10 biopharma and advanced products.
There is little doubt that this program has the potential to change the world landscape of industrial and thus materials production and substantially increase competition with current leaders in manufacturing. Current plans, extending to , call for China to pay more attention to the basic research in materials science, the exploration in the frontier areas, and to multidisciplinary research on national economic, social, and technological development and major needs.
Much of the funding is aligned to investment in student programs. Specific areas of investment include aircraft engines, structural materials, electronic materials, energy materials, biomaterials, transportation, and quantum materials. MR is strongly funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, National Science Foundation of China, local and industrial sources, and sources focused on facilities for characterization and advanced manufacturing.
The National Outline for Medium-and-Long-Term Scientific and Technological Development , released in , identifies major special projects involving strategically important products, critical common technologies, and major engineering projects in line with national objectives. Of note is the dramatic and effective return on centralized investment in China.
Substantial government funding in MR has resulted in recruitment of talented researchers from around the world. Materials science papers from Chinese researchers tripled between and One in every 10 papers in was in materials science.
In addition, the Chinese government, through the National Development and Reform Commission and Ministry of Science and Technology, has approved the plan to establish three comprehensive National Science Centers. It has just been announced that there will be a fourth Comprehensive. The Chinese Academy is organizing several other platforms; among them, the Institute of Physics leads the construction of materials genome 40, m 2 and lithium-ion battery 80, m 2 platforms.
Fifty new appointments will be made to staff the materials genome platform. MR will certainly benefit from this foundation. Of note in the new plan is a clear division between the roles of the government and the private sector, with the government focusing on fundamental technologies and future growth drivers and the private sector focusing on commercialization.
In addition, Korea plans to establish programs that will guarantee SMEs access to personnel and equipment in universities and government-backed research institutes GBRIs and will follow the effective German Fraunhofer model. While promoting collaboration between universities and corporate researchers, the government has also set some aggressive goals for they place added emphasis on strategic intellectual property IP management and standardization, look to double the number of license agreements on university patents, and want to increase the rate of initial public offering IPO cases regarding venture companies.
This issue is addressed through improved political. The plan contains a number of numerical goals related to research for the coming 5 years and identifies several technology areas, such as bio- and nanotechnology, the IoT, and AI as important multidisciplinary enablers.
Investment areas that have been called out as priorities include energy, next-generation infrastructures, local resources, and health and medical. SM4I looks to develop ultrastrong and ultralight heat-resistant materials for aviation, such as CFRPs, alloys, intermetallics, and ceramic-coatings, and accelerate their development and adoption through advanced computer science that correctly predicts complex material behavior.
The Power Electronics program aims to use next-generation materials, such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, to spread the adoption of improved electronics that result in a leap forward for energy management and efficiency. It looks to achieve the low-cost production of high value-added materials and products through high-precision processing. To promote closer collaborations between universities and industry as called out by the fifth plan, AIST has created and is growing two new collaboration strategies.
For materials and chemistry, these include the following:. A sense of the dynamical, international nature of MR can best be appreciated with the aid of case studies that show how important advances often begin with initial ideas being developed in one country, followed by necessary development in a second, and finally commercialized in a third.
In the current state of rapid change with Industry 4. This section will present brief case histories highlighting these trends. Liquid crystals, which flow like a liquid yet exhibit anisotropy like a crystal, were first discovered by Fredrich Reintzer in Although E. Merck of Darmstadt sold liquid crystals for analytical purposes as early as , they were far from the mainstream of scientific research, with only a few institutions studying them by Europe, particularly the United Kingdom, would get involved with the technology by creating new types of liquid crystal materials, which were stable at room temperature, in its chemical laboratories but it was Japan that eventually succeeded.
The scaling up of the LCD to flat panel displays for computers and large-screen TVs was a very complex and very expensive process. In Japan, however, the government worked with different companies to create the flat panel display—this cooperative effort allowed capital and talent to be pooled in a way that could not be done in the United States. Moreover, companies in Japan tended to be large and diversified, and revenue streams from other commercial areas allowed these firms to work with other companies on this one project without having to worry about overall cash flow.
Government aid also helped soften the blow so here CEOs of Japanese companies had low perceived risk. In this way, Asia took a largely American invention and found a way to tap the commercial potential in it. Lessons from this example include the following: 1 breakthrough applications often require advances and new ideas in many different fields, 2 persistence and vision are often the determining factor in actually bringing a product to market, and 3 such persistence and vision often rest on a few individuals.
In addition, the sequence of necessary advances often occurs in different countries. In the liquid crystal case, the idea of a flat display and how it would work was the first essential step, but that idea could not come to realization without the advances in chemistry that provided room-temperature-stable liquid crystals. Advances in semiconductor technology were the final essential ingredient for the successful development of the amazing displays we now take for granted.
In the past 5 years, AM has in a sense come into its own in aerospace. NASA in collaboration with Space-X is developing additive-manufactured rocket engines, and companies around the world are using AM to make reduced-weight plane seats, helicopter engines, and flying-car bodies. The manufacturers of aircraft engines had gained experience using AM to prototype.
See Chapters 11 and 12 for the case study of LCDs and flat panel displays. Its design of fuel nozzles had an interior structure that was so complex that to make it would have required more than 20 parts that would have to be welded together, an almost impossible task. Mohammad Ehteshami, then head of engineering for GE Aviation, went to Morris Technologies, a local Cincinnati company that pioneered the use of metallic AM and that made prototypes for GE projects, to investigate whether it could use AM for mass production of a complex part.
A nickel alloy prototype of the intricate nozzle tip exceeded all expectations: it combined all 20 parts into one and weighed 25 percent less than an ordinary nozzle and was more than five times as durable. In , it also acquired the Italian firm Avio Aero, which now has one of the most advanced 3D manufacturing facilities in Europe, and it is already making parts for the TiAl turbine blades for the GE9X—the largest jet engine ever built.
There are several lessons to be learned from the development of AM as essential component of advanced manufacturing of complex parts: 1 At one level, this is a common story: a new idea often takes 30 or so years to mature, but when it does it can have a profound effect. Permanent neodymium-iron Nd 2 Fe 14 B magnets are the strongest currently known, with extensive uses in motors, speakers, cell phones, wind turbines, hybrid cars—the list goes on. They were first discovered independently by different methods by General Motors in the United States and Sumitomo Special Metals eventually acquired by Hitachi in Japan in in response to increasing cost of.
The new material quickly became the industry standard, with dozens of firms engaged in its production. China has controlled production of rare-earth metals since at least the s. By or so, because of strong demand and active enforcement of environmental policies, the price of rare earths increased considerably, putting pressure on both producers and purchasers of permanent magnets.
The result was a shuttering of many producers and a flight of those who remained to Asia to be closer both to supplies and customers in the booming Asian economies. By , there were no producers of Nd magnets in the United States. The situation was and continues to be complicated by litigation over patent violations Hitachi, which holds most of the patents on Nd magnets, and Chinese firms and imposition of unfair market barriers Chinese firms against Hitachi working through the U.
The United States is, of course, aware of the magnet problem, and it would prefer not to have to rely so completely on a single technology or single material provider for something as increasingly important as permanent magnets. On the other hand, DOE-supported research on AM has developed a process that produces better magnet performance with less material see Box 2.
The take-away from this case study is that forces beyond science and engineering often determine the fate of local commercialization of superior materials and their processing. Photovoltaics PVs are semiconductor materials 37 that convert light in particular from the sun to electricity. They are becoming an increasingly important component of electric power grids around the world, with gigawatts GW—billion watts of capacity in or about 1.
The first patent for a solar cell was awarded to Russel Ohl Bell Laboratories in , and the first practical crystalline solar cell was realized in , again at Bell Labs. Crystalline c-Si and polycrystalline silicon poly-Si remain the dominant material for PV cells, with 95 percent of the market in Boeing in the s 39 have found commercial application and show some promise for the future. These three materials all have peak efficiencies above 20 percent.
From through , the United States dominated both research in and applications of PVs. By the s and through the s, PVs found applications in off-the-grid standalone power systems and in consumer products like watches and calculators. By , the United States had 77 MW of solar PV capacity, and focus had begun to shift to grid-connected rooftop systems. In , the city of Kobe in Japan experienced an earthquake that led to severe power outages that paralyzed the entire neighboring electrical infrastructure.
PV systems provided temporary replacement power. In the same year, the experimental Monje Nuclear Power Plant developed a sodium leak that forced a shutdown and that led to massive public outrage. Following its Renewable Energy Act of , Germany displaced Japan as the world PV leader in , a position it held until it was in turn displaced by China in Fluctuating national agendas and normal market fluctuations have created challenges for manufacturers of PVs, in many cases leaving them in bankruptcy.
The decision of Germany to favor development of PV systems and the decision of China to begin investing in them and subsidizing their production led to an increase in demand for silicon by 75 percent. The polysilicon industry responded with technological improvements and investment in more capacity. By , the ratio of actual output of PV silicon to production capacity was still only at 63 percent.
This overcapacity led to increasingly inexpensive exports from China to the United States, and then to U. China responded with antidumping tariffs of 57 percent on U. Solyndra, a company founded in , developed a technology for solar panels in which thin CIGS films were rolled and encapsulated in specially designed cylinders allowing, it was argued, for the panels to absorb energy in all directions.
Orders fell, and Solyndra declared bankruptcy in , laying off 1, people. It developed a CIGS PV ink that it spread on a flexible substrate whereupon nanoparticles in the ink aligned under a self-assembly process. In December , it started solar cell production in its San Jose factory, and by February , it had reached a production capacity of MW per year, but in the end its total actual production was only 50 MW.
There are, of course, U. These include the following:. The status of PV use and investment continues its state of competition and flux with the contested U. In spite of the complicated economics and politics , PV electric power development will continue, and research will lead to improvements in efficiency and to new device structures.
Lithium batteries were first proposed and realized by Stanley Whittingham while working for Exxon in the s, although G. Lewis had initiated some explorations in the early s. Lithium is the lightest of all metals, has the greatest electrochemical potential, and provides the largest specific energy per weight.
With lithium metal as the anode, the safety issues owing to its reactivity and inherent instability were obvious, as were the problems associated with the formation of lithium dendrites, which grew with repeated cycling and short-circuited the batteries. Research shifted to nonmetallic materials using intercalated lithium ions.
The final product, which is now called the Li-ion battery, has had a transformational impact on personal electronics and on personal mobility, affecting communication, computation, entertainment, information, transportation, and the fundamental ways in which people interact with one another and with information. The first successful Li-ion batteries were commercialized by Sony in Since the initial inventions, the energy density of Li-ion batteries has improved and continues to improve at a rate of percent per year due directly to progressive improvements achieved through advanced materials science research, carried out across a broad spectrum of university, major industry, start-up company, and government national laboratories.
The trajectory of key innovations to date is a fascinating sequence of both discovery and design. Sony used a soft carbon host structure coke in the first commercial battery containing lithium at the anode instead of metallic lithium, although the quest for Li-metal anodes continues today owing to the higher energy density attainable.
Thus, the initial concept of the Li-metal anode was ultimately abandoned for a soft-carbon intercalation anode, which was itself abandoned for a hard-carbon anode and then a graphite anode, the evolution based primarily on the interaction that. On the cathode side, much credit goes to Goodenough and co-workers for the development of a new class of cathode materials, layered transition-metal oxides, such as Li x CoO 2 , first reported in In , Goodenough and coworkers proposed LiFePO 4 and other phospho-olivines lithium metal phosphates with the same structure as mineral olivine as positive electrode materials.
In , Chiang again increased performance by utilizing iron III phosphate particles of less than nanometers in diameter. Commercialization led to a rapid growth in the market for higher capacity Li-ion batteries. The Materials Genome Initiative has had a major impact in trying to develop ideas to go beyond Li-ion, such as the use of divalent ions that, all other things being equal which they are not , would increase the energy density by a factor of 2.
Likewise, silicon anodes are being actively explored for their greater lithium binding capacity than graphite. Yet another important area of materials development is in the electrolytes, particularly in the development of solid electrolytes that both eliminate flammable organic liquid electrolytes and provide a physical barrier to dendrite short-circuiting. This steady progress in MR has led not only to steady improvement in performance, but also a steady decrease in costs of manufacturing.
Today, high-energy-density cells deliver more than mA-h, and the costs are dropping further. Cost reduction, increased specific energy, and the absence of toxic material paved the road to make Li-ion the universally accepted battery for portable applications, heavy industries, electric power trains, and satellites.
The findings in this decadal survey stress the need for continued international collaboration—especially as facilities become larger, more complex, and expensive. The findings also point out the need for the United States to not lose its strength in. Crabtree, E. Kocs, and L. These two findings are intimately related: The United States will lose its ability to be involved in front-line international collaborations if U.
The committee points out here that these international collaborations bring up an ever-rising challenge: How does the United States maintain international research while maintaining U. The committee has recently seen some of our governmental research laboratories prohibit its research employees from attending conferences in China and the U. Department of the Treasury forbidding attendance of U.
Note that in the early s, U. These interactions played a formative role in substantially changing and growing theoretical condensed matter physics. During all of these interactions, continuing into the late s, scientists were not only carefully watched but also remained vigilant in sharing only the most basic of their physics to move the fields forward, together. Ceasing international collaborations will put the United States at a great disadvantage for MR, from the most fundamental to the most applied industrial research.
In the past, scientists knew how to write papers, discuss research, and present talks; sharing what needed to be shared, while keeping any sensitive materials confidential. But times have changed—and cyber security has raised new challenges. These new challenges also apply to industrial security within the United States. The complaint was filed Monday Nov. Johnson and Torianne were arrested by officers on Dec. According to complaint documents, one of those recent transactions included a large deposit resulting from a legal settlement between Heiltsuk First Nation and Canada, and a recent small transfer to a family member.
Guillaume Roy, Initiative de journalisme local, Le Quotidien. Newfoundland and Labrador's chief medical officer of health announced new rules for rotational workers returning to the province at late-morning press conference Monday. However, the rules for workers returning from a site or camp where a COVID outbreak has been confirmed must self-isolate for the full 14 days upon arriving back home.
New rules for family members of returning rotational workersThere are changes for some family members in the household of rotational workers. Any adults within the same home of a rotational worker must now wear a mask when interacting with anyone outside their household, including other family members. It was back on Sept. Previously, workers had to self-isolate for the full 14 days. On Nov. It is recommended they avoid long-term-care facilities, but it is not a rule.
Rotational workers facing backlashEarlier Monday, before the changes were announced, the mayor of Grand Bank said the town is grappling with a great deal of anxiety, but now that contact tracing is complete, they're hoping to have turned the corner. When asked Monday how that's possible, Fitzgerald said not every person gets tested in N. Grand Bank has been a hotbed for rumours and speculation about the source of the infections, leading to a flurry of online comments condemning rotational workers who travel back and forth from places like Alberta.
In a social media group for rotational workers, some people report having the RCMP called on them for doing mundane tasks around their own property, like putting up Christmas lights. So under normal circumstances there's no issues, but these are extraordinary times. CEO Mary Barra said in an letter Monday to environmental groups that GM will pull out of the lawsuit, and it urges other automakers to do so. She said the company agrees with President-elect Joe Biden's plan to expand electric vehicle use.
Last week, GM said it is testing a new battery chemistry that will bring electric-vehicle costs down to those of gas-powered vehicles within five years. Barra sent the letter after a call with California Gov. Gavin Newsom, the company said. Last year General Motors, Fiat Chrysler, Toyota and 10 smaller automakers sided with the Trump administration in a lawsuit over whether California has the right to set its own standards for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy.
Tom Krisher, The Associated Press. RCMP are looking to speak to a woman who allegedly assaulted an employee of Skaha Lake Liquor Store in Penticton after he had asked her to wear a mask. Penticton RCMP are asking the woman or anyone else who may have information into this matter to call them at or to remain anonymous call Crime Stoppers at TIPS This year, the train is going to have a different look compared to previous iterations.
Canadian Pacific is holding a virtual concert this year, so people can still take live music in while not crowding outside with hundreds of others. As is tradition, people will be encouraged to donate to their local food bank as part of the Holiday Train experience. Canadian Pacific will be making donations to food banks in all municipalities that the train usually stops in.
The Holiday Train has been around for 22 years, and has stopped all around North America. People can find CP on social media platforms by searching for Canadian Pacific. The Atlantic bubble has come to an end for now. Both Newfoundland and Labrador and P.
New Brunswick isn't following suit, although Premier Blaine Higgs is asking people to be cautious about travel outside the province. Monday's withdrawal from the Atlantic bubble comes as New Brunswick reported 15 new cases on Monday, and one death, which occurred in the Saint John region.
Jennifer Russell, New Brunswick's chief medical officer of health, said at Monday's news conference. All 15 of the new cases have been "identified and are isolating," Russell said. Seven people in New Brunswick have died of the disease since the pandemic started.
On Sunday, 1, tests were done, for a total of , If a resident is outdoors or in a public space and faces "the possibility of running into someone and not being able to maintain physical distancing," they should wear a mask, he said. Then they spend time with other servers and bartenders and the virus continues to spread. In the past, she said, New Brunswick teachers and health-care workers who are asymptomatic have been allowed to get tested.
He encouraged people to be careful about interacting with people in their 20s. Enforcement of rules, and frustration with non-compliancePremier Blaine Higgs said Monday that police and peace offers were enforcing compliance with the single-household bubble, mask-wearing, physical distancing and other rules in the orange zones on the weekend.
Thirty tickets were issued, he said, and at least one business in southeastern New Brunswick has been shut down after not following guidelines "for some time. As this is a high-risk situation, Horizon is declaring an outbreak at the Centre. As of Monday morning, Horizon is restricting all visitors at the Centre and cancelling scheduled appointments until further notice after an employee tested positive for COVID on Saturday. The employee is self-isolating, Horizon said in a statement.
Patients who were in contact with the employee when the employee may have been infectious had rapid testing for the respiratory virus Sunday. Horizon said all affected patients have been isolated. Horizon Health said affected patients and families have also been notified. Employee, 3 residents test positive at ShannexA Shannex official says the Parkland Saint John facility has activated its pandemic plan after one employee and three residents tested positive for COVID Clinical practice director and infection control specialist Lisa Snodgrass says all residents and employees were tested.
And she's been told those four were the only positive cases. Public health says the outbreak is at Tucker Hall. Snodgrass says that's a bed licensed long-term care home on the Parkland Saint John campus. Snodgrass said all residents are self-isolating as well as some employees - she declined to say how many. Residents can normally move freely between the buildings, but under pandemic restrictions, she says most of the movement is limited to health care team members.
She says the investigation into cause of the outbreak is ongoing. Potential public exposure was also reported on Nov. Full list on Public Health website. In children, symptoms have also included purple markings on the fingers and toes. In the height of the COVID pandemic, Alberta Health Services posted a heart-wrenching on Twitter after the province confirmed more than people have died from the virus.
COVID restrictions have shone a light on broadband inequity which limits the ability to work from home, attend school online, or access services such as healthcare virtually. The Universal Broadband Fund UBF , announced by the federal government recently with additional funds, is looking to rectify some of those concerns.
But it remains unclear how, or if, Indigenous communities will really benefit. Projects must target Indigenous communities, roads within or leading to Indigenous communities, or highways and roads where the deployment of mobile network coverage would benefit Indigenous peoples. This was a moment where the government did nothing. Angus drew parallels with the ongoing issues with boil water advisories in 61 Indigenous communities that the Trudeau Liberals promised would be resolved by But it also offers new personal insights into the year-old Argentine pope and his sense of humour.
At one point, Francis reveals that after he offered in to retire as archbishop of Buenos Aires when he turned 75, he planned to finally finish the thesis he never completed on the 20th-century German intellectual, Romano Guardini. Francis was elected pope, and bishop of Rome, on March 13, The publisher said the book was the first written by a pope during a major world crisis and Ivereigh said it was done as a response to the coronavirus and the lockdown.
For Francis, the pandemic offers an unprecedented opportunity to imagine and plan for a more socially just world. Without identifying the U. Confederate leaders. A better way, he said, is to debate the past through dialogue. The first was the respiratory infection that nearly killed him when he was 21 and in his second year at the Buenos Aires diocesan seminary.
After being saved, Francis decided to join the Jesuit religious order. The second COVID moment was when he moved to Germany in to work on his thesis and felt such loneliness and isolation he moved back to Argentina without finishing it. The third occurred during the nearly two years he spent in exile in Cordoba, northern Argentina, as penance for his authoritarian-laced reign as head of the Jesuit order in the country. Sharing is caring, and also a cheap and affordable way to live, according to one Chatham-Kent councillor.
On Monday, South Kent Coun. Mary Clare Latimer will be presenting council with a motion that staff investigate the implementation, maintenance and benefits of starting a Chatham-Kent Homeshare Program. A homeshare program is when residents, most commonly seniors, open up their home to those in need of affordable housing. The idea is that an individual will help out a senior with their everyday needs in exchange for no rent or very low rent.
I really like that piece about it. The program would be a more formal way to help connect individuals with someone they might not know. But it's another tool in the tool box. There are currently individuals on the waitlist for affordable housing, the majority of which have jobs but spend per cent of their income on rent. Latimer said there is a lot of underutilized real estate and infrastructure in Chatham-Kent with a lot of seniors living in houses that have two or three empty bedrooms.
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