They spend some months in the sea during and after the hatching season. The Reserve is designed to protect the islands coral reefs, seagrass and endangered marine species including sea turtles. The Reserve has two levels of protection, the yellow zones of protection where certain non-extractive activities, like snorkeling and boating, are allowed and the red zones of high protection where most activities including SCUBA are restricted in order to protect or recover marine life.
Anchoring is prohibited in the Reserve and mooring buoys are in place in some of the protected bays like Colombier. As well as Gustavia, the capital of St. Gustavia is in a U-shaped cove facing the harbour on the west. The coastal arm of this cove is in a peninsula while the dockyard is on the east side. It was then their prime trading center. The port maintained a neutral stance since the Caribbean war was on in the 18th century.
They used it as trading post of contraband and the city of Gustavia prospered but this prosperity was short lived. These buildings also underwent further destruction during the hurricanes and also by gutting in However, some monuments are still intact such as the residence of the then Swedish governor, now the town hall [ verification needed ]. The oldest colonial structure in the town is stated to be the bell tower now without a bell built in , as part of a church destroyed in the past , in the southeast end of the town on Rue Du Presbytere.
Now, a large clock is installed in place of the bell. The road that runs parallel to the harbour face of the sea called the Rue de la Republique and two other roads connect to the two arms of the U-shaped bay. The city has a network of roads, inherited from the Swedish period, that are laid in a grid pattern, which are either parallel or perpendicular to the three main roads that encompass the bay.
It is on one of the most elegant roads of the town called the Rue du Centenaire. It has a bell tower. A rock wall encircles the church. The museum is housed in an old stone house, a two-storey building which has been refurbished.
Also on display are the ancestral costumes, antique tools, models of Creole houses and ancient fishing boats. It also houses a library. It flashes every 12 seconds, white, green or red depending on direction. The round conical tower has a single red band at the top.
Among the notable structures in the town are the three forts built by the Swedes for defense purposes. One of these forts, known as Fort Oscar formerly Gustav Adolph , which overlooks the sea is located on the far side of La Pointe. However, the ruins have been replaced by a modern military building which now houses the local gendarmerie. The other fort known as Fort Karl now presents a very few ruins. The third fort built by the Swedes is the Fort Gustav, which is also seen in ruins strewn around the weather station and the Light House.
The fort built in over a hill slope has ruins of ramparts, guardhouse, munitions depot, wood-burning oven and so forth. A statue, "Savaku", representing the Arawak peoples is present at Saint-Jean. Private primary schools: . All Souls Day is observed on 2 November, and it is public holiday. The island has over 70 restaurants serving many dishes and others are a significant number of gourmet restaurants; many of the finest restaurants are located in the hotels. In the early s, the island had two cooking schools: the Saint Barts Cooking School which emphasizes classical French cuisine, and Cooking in Paradise which emphasizes creole cuisine.
The traditional costume which is seen only among older women consists of starched white bonnets called kichnottes. A popular legend related to St. French pirate Daniel Montbars , who was given the epithet "Montbars the Exterminator", took shelter in St. Rugby is a popular sport in the island. One of the major teams on the island is "Les Barracudas," named after the ferocious fish of the Caribbean.
They often play teams from Anguilla and other surrounding islands. Gustavia is also known as a haven for yachting, with many events being held there each year. Barth in April, and the International Regatta in May. It is a boat race with boats of metre foot length with a single hull and with essential safety equipment. Each boat is navigated by two sailors. Races of 2 kilometres 1. The nearest airport with a runway length sufficient to land a typical commercial jet airliner is on the neighboring island of Sint Maarten : Princess Juliana International Airport , which acts as a hub, providing connecting flights with regional carriers to St.
Several international airlines and domestic Caribbean airlines operate in this sector. Many inter-island ferry services operate regularly between St. Martin and St. The narrow and congested roads, and difficulty in parking, have been an impetus for driving Smart cars.
A weekly journal entitled Journal de St. Barth is published in the French language. Its English language abridged version is published as St. Barth Weekly only during the winter months for Anglophone tourists. Reflecting the island's popularity with the rich and famous, the high fashion magazine L'Officiel publishes a seasonal local edition. Other tourist related information is available at the airport and in the offices of the Tourist Authority.
There is no local TV broadcasting station. However, the island has three FM radio channels, out of which two operate via repeaters. The island has a fully integrated access telephone system and with capability for direct dial on fixed and wireless systems. There is also at least one private diagnostic facility. There are many pharmacies dispensing medicines. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Island in the Caribbean. Overseas collectivity of France. Coat of arms.
See also: French West Indies. Other countries. See also: Economy of France. Caribbean portal North America portal France portal Geography portal. Retrieved 24 April Retrieved 31 January CIA Fact Book. Retrieved 8 July The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 19 November Barths Island". Hofman , Anne van Duijvenbode eds. Luthin, 'St. Mayer, and Carolyn E. St Barts Travel Adventures. Hunter Publishing, Inc. Retrieved 8 January Hydrographic Office Marine Ecology: Concepts and Applications.
John Wiley and Sons. Towards an ecology of world languages. French and Creole in Louisiana. Caribbean Net News. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 9 February Barth Weekly. Retrieved 18 February Retrieved 23 September Footprint Caribbean Islands. Footprint Travel Guides.
Retrieved 21 September Barths Online St-barths. Retrieved 13 January University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Retrieved 4 December St Barths Online. Retrieved 4 January Retrieved on 10 March Frommer's Portable St. Martin, Anguilla and St. New Holland Publishers. St Barts Music Festival. Barths Online. Sky juice and flying fish: traditional Caribbean cooking. Simon and Schuster. Lonely Planet. Los Angeles Times. Overseas France. French Polynesia St. Martin St.
Pierre and Miquelon Wallis and Futuna. New Caledonia. Clipperton Island. Outlying territories of European countries. Pilar Bush Director of Tourism Email: pbush caymanisl and s. Evita Nita Acting Director Email: enita curacao. Collin Piper Director of Tourism Email: cpiper dominica. Luis E.
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It is the only Caribbean island that was a Swedish colony for any significant length of time before the end of the Napoleonic Wars , Guadeloupe came under Swedish rule for a year before the Treaty of Paris. It remained so for nearly a century before it returned to French rule after a referendum.
Symbolism from the Swedish national arms , the Three Crowns , still appears in the island's coat of arms. The language, cuisine, and culture, however, are distinctly French. The island is a popular tourist destination during the winter holiday season, geared towards the high-end, luxury tourist market. The island was named by Christopher Columbus for his younger brother Bartholomew Columbus in By the island was settled by the French, encouraged by Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy , the lieutenant-governor of the French West India Company, and initially comprised about 50 to 60 settlers, later augmented by smaller numbers coming from St Kitts.
However, the settlement was attacked by Caribs in and briefly abandoned. De Poincy was the dominant administrator in this period and a member of the Order of Saint John. He continued to rule the island until his death in Five years later, it was bought by the French West India Company along with the Order's other possessions in the Caribbean. The island proved economically unsuccessful, and was subject to the activities of pirates most notably Daniel Montbars aka 'Montbars the Exterminator' , as well as the British , who attacked the island in Slavery was practiced in St.
The last legally owned slaves in the Swedish colony of St. In , a devastating hurricane [ verification needed ] hit the island and this was followed by a fire. On 19 March , the people of the island became French citizens with full rights. Through a referendum in , island residents sought separation from the administrative jurisdiction of Guadeloupe, and it was finally accomplished in A governing territorial council was elected for its administration, which has provided the island with a certain degree of autonomy.
A senator represents the island in Paris. The island sustained damage from Hurricane Irma in September but recovered quickly, and by early transport and electricity were largely operational. Martin, Anguilla, and Dog Island , a distinct group that lies upon the western edge of a flat bank of soundings composed chiefly of shells, sand, and coral. From St. It is separated from the main bank by a narrow length of deep water.
East of the island, the edge of the bank lies 22 kilometres 14 miles away. Grande Saline Bay provides temporary anchorage for small vessels while Colombier Bay, to the northwest, has a 4 fathoms patch near mid-entrance.
In the bight of St. Jean Bay there is a narrow cut through the reef. Reefs are mostly in shallow waters and are clearly visible. The coastal areas abound with beaches and many of these have offshore reefs, some of which are part of a marine reserve. The marine reserve, founded in , covers more than 1, hectares 2, acres of protected and vulnerable habitats, bays and islands, and includes a zone that is restricted to scientific observations only.
Environmental awareness is quite pronounced in St. There are as many as 22 public beaches most beaches on St. They are categorized and divided into two groups, the leeward side calm waters protected by the island itself and windward side some of which are protected by hills and reefs. The windward beaches are popular for windsurfing.
The beach of St Jean is suitable for water sports and facilities have been created for that purpose. The long beach at Lorient has shade and is a quiet beach as compared to St. Grand-cul-de-sac is a long beach with facilities for water sports. Anse de Flamands is a very wide sandy beach and Le petit Anse The little beach , just to the north of Anse de Flamands is very safe and popular with the locals for their children. Anse Toiny beach is in a remote location and is considered suitable for experienced surfers as the water current is very strong.
The area around the salt ponds near the Anse de Grande Saline beach is marshy and is a habitat for tropical birds. Ile islet, an offshoot of the leeward side, has a white sandy beach. Shell Beach, also called Anse de Grand Galet in French, 'Anse' means "cove" and Galet means "pebble" , is a beach in the southwestern part of Gustavia.
A large number of sea shells are scattered on this beach. This beach was subject to the strong waves of hurricane Lenny in , which resulted in erosion of the sand. This necessitated supplementing the beach with new sand in On the north coast, on the far eastern side of the island, there are two lagoons called the Anse de Marigot [ verification needed ] and Anse du Grand Cul-de-Sac.
Morne du Vitet , metres feet in height, is the highest peak on the island. The population is spread among 40 quartiers , roughly corresponding to settlements. They are grouped into two paroisses parishes :. The eastern side is wetter than the western. Although the climate is essentially arid, the rainfall does average 1, millimetres 40 inches annually, but with considerable variation over the terrain. Summer is from May to November, which is also the rainy season.
Winter from December to April is the dry season. Sunshine is very prominent for nearly the entire year and even during the rainy season. Humidity, however, is not very high due to the winds. Most of them are descendants of the first settlers, of Breton , Norman , Poitevin, Saintongeais and Angevin lineage.
There is also a big community of Portuguese emigrants mainly from the North of Portugal, around people. Until the whole island of St. The new status took effect on 15 July , when the first territorial council was elected, according to the law. Elections to these councils were first held on 1 July with the most recent election in One senator represents the island in the French Senate.
France is responsible for the defence of the island and as such has stationed a security force on the island comprising six policemen and thirteen gendarmes posted on two-year term. The French State is represented by a Prefect appointed by the President on the advice of the Minister of the Interior. The economy of the island is based on tourism and duty-free retail.
International investment and the wealth generated by tourists explain the high standard of living on the island. Of particular note are Eden Rock and Cheval Blanc. Hotel Le Toiny , the most expensive hotel on the island, has 12 rooms. Most places of accommodation are in the form of private villas, of which there are some available to rent on the island.
It also attracts a labour force from Portugal. Agricultural production on the island is difficult given the dry and rocky terrain, but the early settlers managed to produce vegetables, cotton, pineapples, salt, bananas and also fishing. Corossol is noted for its handicrafts; weaving hats and bags from palm fronds is a low income economic activity of the indigenous people. As the terrain is generally arid, the hills have mostly poor soil and support only cacti and succulent plants.
During the rainy season the area turns green with vegetation and grass. The eastern part of the island is greener as it receives more rainfall. A survey has revealed several hundred indigenous species of plants including the naturalized varieties of flora; some growing in irrigated areas while the dry areas are dominated by the cacti variety.
Sea grapes and palm trees are a common sight with mangroves and shrubs surviving in the saline coastal swamps. Coconut palm was brought to the island from the Pacific islands. Important plants noted on the island include flamboyant trees , frangipanis , sabal palms , wild trumpet and Manchineel trees.
Other trees of note include the royal palm , sea grape trees in the form of shrubs on the beaches and as 5 to 7 metres 16 to 23 feet trees in the interior areas of the island, aloe or aloe vera brought from the Mediterranean ,  the night blooming cereus , mamillaria nivosa , yellow prickly pear or barbary fig which was planted as barbed wire defences against invading British army in , Mexican cactus , stapelia gigantea , golden trumpet or yellow bell which was originally from South America, bougainvillea and others.
Marine mammals are many, such as dolphins , porpoises and whales , which are seen here during the migration period from December until May. Turtles are a common sight along the coastline of the island. They are a protected species and in the endangered list. It is stated that it will take 15—50 years for this species to attain reproductive age. Though they live in the sea, the females come to the shore to lay eggs and are protected by private societies. Three species of turtles are particularly notable.
These are: The leatherback sea turtles which have leather skin instead of a shell and are the largest of the type found here, some times measuring a much as 3 metres 10 feet average is about 1. Avifauna in the wild, both native and migrating include brown pelican along the shore line, magnificent frigatebirds with long wingspans of up to 1.
The marine life found here consists of anemones , urchins , sea cucumbers , and eels , which all live on the reefs along with turtles , conch and many varieties of marine fishes. Its meat is a favourite food supplement item and their shells are a collectors item.
Other species of fish which are recorded close to the shore line in shallow waters are: sergeant majors , the blue chromis , brown chromis , surgeon fish ; blue tangs and trumpet fish. On the shore are ghost crabs , which always live on the beach in small burrowed tunnels made in sand, and the hermit crabs , which live in land but lay eggs in water and which also eat garbage and sewerage.
They spend some months in the sea during and after the hatching season. The Reserve is designed to protect the islands coral reefs, seagrass and endangered marine species including sea turtles. The Reserve has two levels of protection, the yellow zones of protection where certain non-extractive activities, like snorkeling and boating, are allowed and the red zones of high protection where most activities including SCUBA are restricted in order to protect or recover marine life.
Anchoring is prohibited in the Reserve and mooring buoys are in place in some of the protected bays like Colombier. As well as Gustavia, the capital of St. Gustavia is in a U-shaped cove facing the harbour on the west. The coastal arm of this cove is in a peninsula while the dockyard is on the east side. It was then their prime trading center. The port maintained a neutral stance since the Caribbean war was on in the 18th century.
They used it as trading post of contraband and the city of Gustavia prospered but this prosperity was short lived. These buildings also underwent further destruction during the hurricanes and also by gutting in However, some monuments are still intact such as the residence of the then Swedish governor, now the town hall [ verification needed ].
The oldest colonial structure in the town is stated to be the bell tower now without a bell built in , as part of a church destroyed in the past , in the southeast end of the town on Rue Du Presbytere. Now, a large clock is installed in place of the bell.
The road that runs parallel to the harbour face of the sea called the Rue de la Republique and two other roads connect to the two arms of the U-shaped bay. The city has a network of roads, inherited from the Swedish period, that are laid in a grid pattern, which are either parallel or perpendicular to the three main roads that encompass the bay. It is on one of the most elegant roads of the town called the Rue du Centenaire.
It has a bell tower. A rock wall encircles the church. The museum is housed in an old stone house, a two-storey building which has been refurbished. Also on display are the ancestral costumes, antique tools, models of Creole houses and ancient fishing boats. It also houses a library. It flashes every 12 seconds, white, green or red depending on direction. The round conical tower has a single red band at the top. Among the notable structures in the town are the three forts built by the Swedes for defense purposes.
One of these forts, known as Fort Oscar formerly Gustav Adolph , which overlooks the sea is located on the far side of La Pointe. However, the ruins have been replaced by a modern military building which now houses the local gendarmerie.
The other fort known as Fort Karl now presents a very few ruins. The third fort built by the Swedes is the Fort Gustav, which is also seen in ruins strewn around the weather station and the Light House. The fort built in over a hill slope has ruins of ramparts, guardhouse, munitions depot, wood-burning oven and so forth. Health and Wellness Associations Ba. Wilfred Abrahams Presi. Belleville St. Michael BAR. Stephen King Tel: Lucia Nurses' Association Nures. Nazareth U.
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Edwards also ran a nutritional center feeding children two meals a day, 5 days a week in Haiti. Estes Church of Christ Minister Dr. Jesse Robertson knew Edwards for more than 15 years. He says in the amount of time Edwards was overseen by the church since , she accomplished things that seemed impossible sometimes.
She would start into things that she didn't know how she was going to accomplish, but she trusted that the Lord would provide. Robertson says the church will continue to work in places that need healing and peace. If you would like to honor Roberta with a memorial gift for the work in Haiti, those may be sent to the Estes Church of Christ, P. Box , Henderson, TN, , and her family will be notified of your tribute.
Congresswoman calls for probe into voter fraud, violence, and intimidation surrounding Haiti elections. The ranking member of the Financial Services Committee in Congress, Waters has been a champion for Haiti for many years. Her letter urges Kerry to take all necessary and appropriate action to support free, fair and democratic elections in Haiti. The letter specifically calls on him to make a clear statement that the violence, fraud, and voter intimidation witnessed in the first round of the elections should be thoroughly and independently investigated, that the individuals and parties responsible for the violence must be sanctioned, regardless of political party affiliation, and that the Provisional Electoral Council CEP must make the reforms necessary to establish public trust.
I appreciate the ongoing efforts of the Department of State and the U. Therefore, as you undertake a trip to Haiti at this critical moment, I urge you to take all necessary and appropriate action to support free, fair and democratic elections in Haiti. The voting in the Aug. Turnout was extremely low, with less than 18 percent of registered voters participating nationwide.
Nearly 25 percent of the votes cast have not been accounted for and were never counted. Political party representatives — sometimes posing as election observers — frequently attempted to influence or intimidate voters, stuff ballot boxes, and violently disrupt voting, according to local observer groups. The CEP ruled that they would accept the votes from constituencies where at least 70 percent of the tally sheets were considered valid, a distressingly low threshold for acceptability, which brings into question the legitimacy of the candidates who will eventually take office.
Despite local observers reporting widespread violence and irregularities, the CEP only excluded 16 out of the nearly 2, candidates from the election due to their alleged involvement in election-day violence. The town contains today many fine examples of early colonial architecture, such as the three-story, late-seventeenth-century Arlington House. Washington House Bush Hill House , situated at the top of Bush Hill to the north of the Garrison Savannah and Main Guard, was the residence where the nineteen-year-old George Washington stayed during his seven-week visit in Ann's Garrison.
A reference library is available for research on the island's history and genealogy at the Barbados Museum and Historical Society, St. Ann's Garrison, St. You can reach the National Archives via phone: or fax: The Virgin Islands were part of the British federal colony of the Leeward Islands after and are still a British colony.
Tortola is the largest of this group of islands. In response to the threat of American privateers, the local merchants fitted out pirateers, or "pickaroons," which carried anywhere between 4 to 68 guns with crews of between 20 and men. They were sufficiently successful to incur the wrath of the United States. As late as , Congress made plans for a retaliatory raid against Tortola.
There are still the remains of the home of Dr. Fort Recovery in the west of the island was built by the Dutch between and Cuba is the largest island in the Caribbean with a total area of 42, square miles, and it was a Spanish colony between and It was the assembly point for the silver fleets to Spain. Charles III initiated a major expansion of the navy and of the fortifications of the islands in the decade before the American Revolution. The impetus for strengthening the defenses of the Spanish islands was partly a response to British successes during the Seven Years' War, when the British had conquered Havana and the Floridas.
Spain consequently built the formidable fortress of Fortaleza in Havana between and The British never attempted to attack the island following the entry of Spain into the Revolutionary War in The Spanish were cautious in their support of the American Revolution. They allied themselves with France but never formally with the United States. They opened the ports of Cuba to American trade in The highest-ranking prisoner in Havana during the war was Major General John Campbell , the former commander of British forces at Pensacola.
There are almost surving buildings in the city which date from between and The bell tower was added in to The fortress was the residence of the captain general between and and was used as a barracks during the American Revolution. The Castillo de los Tres Reyes del Morro, at the mouth of the harbor, was built in and overwhelmed after a forty-four-day siege by the British in There are still sixty cannon pointing out to sea.
It could accommodate five thousand troops. It was the largest fort built on the Spanish Main and, together with the rebuilding of El Morro, it illustrates the major improvements to the defenses of the Spanish islands which were undertaken in the decade before the American Revolution. It was the residence of the colonial governors and is now the Municipal Museum.
The palaces include the Palacio del Segundo Cob, built between and ; the Mateo Pedroso y Florencia House, which dates from ; the Palacio del Conde Lombillo, built as the home of the royal treasurer in and reconstructed in ; and the Palacio de los Condes de Casa-Bayona There are numerous former private residences, such as the Zambrana House at Calle Obispo, which is the oldest house in Havana, dating from ; the Hostal Valencia on Calle Officios, south of the Plaza de Armas, a mansion dating from the mid-eighteenth century, and now a hotel; and El Patio, opposite the cathedral, built in The boundary of Old Havana is marked by a shaded boulevard, the Paseo, or Prado, built in Santiago de Cuba is Cuba's second major city after Havana.
The Castillo del Morr was built about and expanded in It retains its moat, drawbridge, ramparts, cannon, dungeons, barracks, and chapel. It was built on the site of an earlier fort which was destroyed in by the English pirate and later governor of Jamaica, Henry Morgan. Carr, P. Box , San Luis Obispo, Calif. The Guamuhaya Archaeological Museum is in a house built in , and the Museum of Colonial Architecture is in a house built in The Valle de Los Ingenios is a valley with the remains of numerous plantations, slave burial sites, mills, and great houses.
It includes the San Alejo de Manaca Iznaga Villa, a hacienda and plantation great house, built in Cuba's sugar industry developed later than that of the British and French islands in the Caribbean, so most of the island's sugar plantations date from the nineteenth century. The square-mile island was a center for the slave trade and illicit commerce with the Spanish Main.
The island possesses the earliest synagogue in the Western Hemisphere and seventeenth-century tombstones of Jewish settlers. Plantations landhuis and Great Houses. Anna Bay. On the Punda side is the Herrenstraat, which predates There is a ceremonial bath in the courtyard museum. The Beth Haim Cemetery was established by Sephardic Jews, with more than 2, tombs dating from The Penha House, on the corner of Handelskade and Heerenstraat, dates from The Fortkerk, the old Dutch Reformed Church which faces into Wilhelminaplein, was constructed in and rebuilt in Fort Amsterdam was constructed between and It was built according to a seventeenth-century design and retains the arched entrance to the original governor's residence Rif Fort, or Riffort, south of Brionplein, dates from , and protected the harbor with Water Fort, built in Dominica was one of the last islands to be formally colonized by Europeans.
With its very mountainous and richly forested terrain, the square-mile island has some of the best natural features in the Caribbean. In Captain John Smith and a group of colonists stopped at the island on their way to settle Jamestown. French settlers began arriving during the eighteenth century, but the island remained independent until its conquest by the British in and formal cession in Admiral Sir Samuel Barrington had secret orders not to leave Barbados, but to await an expedition from North America which was destined for St.
The French retained the island for the rest of the war, but it was returned to the British in the peace treaty of Maroons runaway slaves waged an internal guerrilla war against the British which began during the American Revolution in and lasted until They were assisted by the forested, mountainous, and rugged terrain of the island, together with the small size of the army garrison.
The island was nevertheless a popular destination for American Loyalists. Dominica became an independent republic in The Cabrits National Park contains Prince Rupert's Garrison, where some fifty different military structures were constructed between and These included Fort Shirley, overlooking Prince Rupert's Bay, with its seven-gun batteries, seven cisterns, powder magazines, storehouses, a guardhouse, a parade ground, engineers' quarters, officers' quarters, two hospitals, a commandant's house, and barracks for six hundred men.
The structures were mostly built by the British, although there were some additions made by the French during their occupation in to They were abandoned as a military post in There is a museum in the old powder magazine. The site was formed by the twin peaks of volcanoes overlooking Prince Rupert's Bay and Portsmouth, and is surrounded on three sides by water. The park has views of the French islands of Les Saintes, where Rodney won his victory in , and Guadeloupe.
Carib Territory. Dominica is unusual in that some of the indigenous people who predated Columbus and who were decimated elsewhere in the Caribbean survived here. The British surveyed and divided the island into lots in , reserving only 23 acres of mountainous land and rocky shoreline at Salybia for the Caribs. Their descendants continue to live in the region. Fort Cashacrou, Scotts Head. Overlooking Soufriere Bay, this was the site where the invading French fought the British en route to Pointe Michel on 7 September The ruins of the fort remain, although much of it was destroyed by erosion and fell into the sea.
It has a view of Martinique. Old Mill Cultural Centre at Canefield has a small museum with displays of pre-Columbian artifacts, as well as exhibits of local art and handicrafts. Prince Rupert's Bay, Portsmouth is a fine natural harbor protected by two hills, the Cabrits. Nelson frequently visited the harbor for wood and water while commanding the H. Rodney's Rock, on the leeward side of the island, was named after Admiral Sir George Rodney and is associated with many legends connected with him.
It was supposedly the site where one of the French ships was wrecked following the Battle of the Saintes. Roseau, the capital. The original town of Roseau was largely destroyed by fire during the occupation of the French in and , and again in and The streets were named after the royal family and contemporary statesmen, including Lord Hillsborough, who held the newly created position of British secretary of state for America after ; Great George, after George III; and Hanover, after the house of Hanover.
Fort Young Hotel, which defended the harbor, began construction in on the orders of the first governor Sir William Young and was completed during the French occupation in It was much damaged in the hurricane of The House of Assembly stands on the site of the original assembly created in Fort Morene Bruce was fortified during the eighteenth century with batteries, barracks, and blockhouses. It is accessible via a path called Jack's Walk, named after James Bruce , the British army engineer who designed the fort.
The barracks continue to be used for government residences and police training. The fort has good views of the town and Botanical Gardens. Box , Roseau, Commonwealth of Dominica; phone: ; fax: Box 42, Forest Hills, N. The 18,square-mile country was a Spanish colony until and, following a period of occupation by Haiti, became independent in It was sacked by Sir Francis Drake in It was after a failed attack on the island in that William Penn chose instead to conquer Jamaica.
The central keep is now a museum. Dominican Genealogy Institute, Inc. The city plan became the blueprint for cities throughout Spanish America. The Las Mercedes Church dates from There is a museum in the sixteenth-century Casa de Tostado that includes displays of furnishings and militaria. The Forteleza Ozama dates from It includes the Casa Batidas and the Torre del Homenaje Tower of Homage , built between the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries, where Columbus's son Diego stayed on his arrival in Santo Domingo.
It is adjacent to a group of eight buildings known as Ataranzana, which was the warehouse district, with a sixteenth-century chandlery, a royal armory, and custom-houses, and now the home of the Naval Underwater Archaeology Museum. The Casas Reales, built in the early sixteenth century, was the headquarters of the governor, the captains general, the Audiencia, the Treasury, and the Supreme Court.
It now contains a museum. Grenada was a British colony from its capture from the French in until except for the brief interval of French occupation between and On 4 July Admiral d'Estaing seized the square-mile island, which was then the largest sugar producer after Jamaica in the British West Indies. Governor Lord Macartney attempted to defend the island with a force of only regulars and militia against 3, French troops. The free blacks and free coloreds who were French hastened his surrender by deserting the garrison.
The French captured thirty richly laden merchant ships in the port, and d'Estaing sacked the town of St. George because the governor refused to surrender. The British admiral John Byron did not reach the island until 6 July, and his inferior fleet fought an indecisive sea battle against d'Estaing's fleet off the coast of Grenada. Byron then returned to St.
Kitts with killed and wounded, as well as considerable damage to the masts and rigging, and six ships disabled. Hurricane Ivan leveled most of the buildings on the island in Hospital Hill, overlooking St. George, was stormed and captured by a force of some 3, men under the command of Count Dillon and Admiral d'Estaing during the conquest in July Lord Macartney made a final attempt to resist the invasion with a total force of no more than men, who entrenched themselves at the summit of the hill.
The French sustained heavy losses during their successful attack, with some killed and another wounded. Richmond Hill was the site of four forts. It was the scene of much construction during the American Revolution, including that of Fort Frederick, which was built by the French in to and completed by the British in to , and Fort Mathew, which dates from between and The town surrounds a landlocked bay known as the Carenage, or inner harbor, which was used by the British and French fleets during the American Revolution.
Many of the original buildings were lost in the fires of and Fort St. George was established in about the s and rebuilt in to It commands a particularly attractive view of the town. In Lord Macartney withdrew to the fort and finally surrendered after a bombardment by the guns from Hospital Hill. Until recently the fort contained one of the earliest barracks in the Caribbean, which were built before It has subterranean passages, one redoubt of the original three, and a small military museum.
The hospital Morne de l'Hopital was built in the early eighteenth century. Fort Mathew, at the top of Richmond Heights, was once the officers' quarters and mess hall. It had an elaborate kitchen which was still in use in the s. Fort Frederick, above the citadel, survived as a partial ruin. George's, Grenada; phone: Guadeloupe is composed of two islands, Basse-Terre and Grande-Terre, which have a combined surface area of square miles. It was settled by the French in and, apart from two interludes of British occupation in to and in , it has remained French.
Basse-Terre, capital of the two islands, contains Fort St. Charles Fort Louis and dates from It is the site of a museum and is well preserved. Vieux Habitants is one of the earliest settlements on Basse-Terre. The stone church was consecrated in The churchyard has some early tombstones.
There are many ruins of eighteenth-century sugar mills on both islands. On the eve of the American Revolution the island was producing more sugar than the entire produce of all the British islands. It was a major conduit of illicit trade to America during the Revolutionary War. Domingue exploited its neutral status before France formally entered the war in , and as early as September , it was the source of large quantities of gunpowder to the rebellion, providing a conduit between France and America.
Caron de Beaumarchais, better known as the playwright who wrote The Marriage of Figaro , used the guise of a merchant firm called Roderigue Hortalez and Company to establish a regular trade between Europe and America via St. The first shipment sailed towards the end of Beaumarchais kept an agent on the island to oversee the operations of the company called Carabas.
The island was the base of operations for Admiral D' Estaing's expedition against Savannah, Georgia in The free colored people and black troops who participated in the campaign included some future leaders of the Haitian Revolution. The island was the intended rendezvous for the combined operation of the French and Spanish fleets against Jamaica in Admiral de Grasse was on his way from Martinique to St. Domingue when he was intercepted and captured by Admiral Rodney at the Battle of the Saintes.
Domingue was the scene of the second major revolution in the Americas. After thirteen years of war and a successful slave revolt, it became an independent black republic in There are few remaining buildings dating from the colonial period. In Admiral de Grasse sailed from here for the Chesapeake, where he played a critical role in preventing the British fleet from relieving the army of Lord Cornwallis.
Fort Magny and Fort St. Joseph are eighteenth century in origin. The blockhouse and ruins of the barracks are still visible. Nicholas, in the northeast of the island, was the great naval stronghold commanding the Windward Passage.
The harbor, fort, and town are located in a landlocked bay. Port au Prince. Fort Nationale, northeast of St. Box , Miami, Fla. Conquered by the British from the Spanish in in an expedition led by Admiral Penn and General Venables, the 4,square-mile island was the largest and most valuable colony in the British Caribbean until it became independent in Admiral Penn's son was rewarded with the patent for Pennsylvania by Charles II, largely in gratitude for his father's capture of Jamaica.
In a slave rebellion broke out in Hanover Parish and quickly spread to other parts of the island before being suppressed by British troops on their way to serve in North America. It resulted in the trial of slaves, of whom 17 were executed, 45 transported, and 11 subjected to corporal punishment. The defense of the island was a major priority of the British government during the Revolutionary War. American privateers launched raids such as the one repelled by the fort at St.
Ann's Bay in After their entry into the war, France and Spain planned combined operations against Jamaica. There was a frenzy of military construction following the French invasion threat in late A series of redoubts were built at intervals up the Cane River Valley, with the first at Drummond's Hill, just south of Newsted, across the track joining the two roads on either side of the Mammee River.
In the summer of , when the island was gripped by an invasion scare, Sir Henry Clinton embarked Lord Cornwallis and 4, British troops for Jamaica. The crisis illustrated the willingness of Britain to defend the island at all costs, even at the risk of sacrificing the war for America. The economic problems caused by the war were aggravated by one of the worst recorded series of hurricanes six in the history of the island, in which an estimated 15, slaves perished.
Jamaica was the most popular destination in the Caribbean for American Loyalists. As many as white families, together with 5, slaves, arrived following the British evacuation of Savannah, Georgia, in July ; and another 1, whites and 2, blacks arrived following the British departure from Charleston, South Carolina the following December.
Apostles' Battery, to the west of Port Royal , was built in the s to protect the south channel into Kingston Harbour. It was a heavily fortified line of twelve guns known as the Twelve Apostles, including nine pounders and three pounders. A stone parapet and paved platform, together with a cistern for 3, gallons of water, were added before There remains the outline of the platform, the northern retaining wall, the cistern, and the magazine.
The other buildings were largely removed for a nineteenth-century gun emplacement. Bath, in the parish of St. Thomas contains hot and cold springs discovered in the s. The buildings are gone except for the foundation plaque, which is set in the wall of the modern bathhouse. The Botanic Garden was established during the American Revolution in The first breadfruit seedling from the Pacific was transplanted by the H.
Bounty to Bath in Cockpit Country is an area which stretches across the parishes of Trelawany, St. Elizabeth, and St. It was the sanctuary of the maroons, the runaway slaves who fought two major wars with the British, in the s to the s and again in the s. It was ideal territory for maroons because of its rugged terrain, which was difficult to traverse. The white limestone formation produces a series of irregular circular arenas that look like inverted cones from the air, and terminate in most cases in a sinkhole in the apex.
The British feared that the maroons might support a foreign enemy, and this made them the subject of much suspicion among the whites during the American Revolution. James and Accompong in St. Trelawny Town still contains barracks built by the British during the Maroon Wars of the s to s. Falmouth in the parish of Trelawny was laid out in the s following the creation of the new parish in , which was named after Governor Sir William Trelawny, who died in office in It is a remarkable survival of a Georgian town in the Caribbean, although most of the buildings are now dilapidated.
They date from between and It can be reached by the Portmore Causeway. The construction began in with the outbreak of war with Spain. It was named in honor of the mother of George III and completed in the mids. Three hundred people died from an explosion in the powder magazine when lightning struck three thousand barrels of powder in There remain important features of the fort, including the curtain and redan guarding the western approach.
The magazine is now used as a chapel. The rest is used as a prison. Fort Haldane has a commanding view of the town and harbor of Port Maria in the parish of St. It was named after General Haldane, the governor in It originally contained an officers' house, barracks, and kitchen. A battery and brick pitched-roof powder magazine are all that survive. Kingston, with its harbor and backdrop of the Blue Mountains , was the largest town in the British West Indies in the eighteenth century and the commercial center of Jamaica.
It was at Kingston that the Bostonborn Eliphalet Fitch obtained the military supplies for Francisco Miranda that were used by the Spanish in the invasion of the Bahamas in Miranda was then a visiting Spanish official arranging a prisoner exchange under a flag of truce, but was later to become a revolutionary leader in Venezuela. Kingston was severely damaged by fire and an earthquake in Headquarters House, built by a merchant in , is now the offices of the Jamaica National Trust.
The Institute of Jamaica is at East Street. It houses the National Library, which possesses the finest collection of manuscripts and books pertaining to Jamaica and, more generally, to the West Indies. The Kingston Synagogue has some very early gravestones. Lucea is a port town in the parish of Hanover on the northwest coast of Jamaica. Fort Charlotte was one of the larger fortresses in the island, mounting twenty-two to twenty-five guns, of which three survive on rotary carriages.
It is situated on a peninsula overlooking the harbor of the town. It was probably built around The walls were 6 feet thick and were built in The north of the island was particularly vulnerable to attacks by pirates and privateers. The admiral commanding the Jamaica station at Port Royal sent two ships to Lucea to help quell the slave rebellion that broke out in Hanover in Montego Bay, in the parish of St.
James, was the chief north-coast port for much of the eighteenth century. It was protected by Fort Montego Fort Frederick , which had a regular garrison of British troops and was built in It had gun embrasures, barracks, and a hospital. It mounted two pounders and eight pounders in A cannon exploded in the face of a gunner during a gun salute to celebrate the surrender of Havana in The foundation stone of the parish church of St.
James was laid the year of the Battle of Bunker Hill in , and the building was completed in Today there are remains of a large powder magazine. Ocho Rios has the remains of a fort dating from about to and restored in the s. It still has four cannon. There are number of plantation houses of the period. Rose Hall, constructed between and near Montego Bay, is one of the grandest great houses in the Caribbean.
It is open to the public. Although it is very impressive, only the original pavilion of the house remains. It had 12 bedrooms, 52 doors, and windows. Greenwood Plantation House was built between and and is associated with the family of Elizabeth Barrett Browning. It houses the largest plantation library on the island and has one of the finest museum and antique collections.
Other great houses include Bellfied, near Montego Bay, which is a restored great house on the Barnett estate open to the public and still a functioning plantation; Cardiff Hall c. Catherine, which was built as a fortified house in the late s; Drax Hall in St.
Ann established ; Good Hope in Trelawny c. Ann; Seville in St. Ann ; Fairfield in St. James, built in ; Stewart Castle, near Falmouth, a fortified home dating from the early eighteenth century; and Stokes Hall in St. Thomas, which was one of the earliest seventeenth-century plantations and is now a ruin maintained by the National Trust. Port Antonio in Portland is one of the finest ports in Jamaica, with a backdrop of the Blue Mountains. Fort George is located on a peninsula called Upper Titchfield.
It was designed by Charles Lilly, who was for many years the chief military engineer in Jamaica. He began the fort when he was nearly seventy, following his return to the island in It contained embrasures for twenty-two guns in a foot-thick wall, which remains together with the original parade ground, bastion, and old barracks.
It is now Titchfield High School. The courthouse dates from the eighteenth century. Port Henderson New Brighton , St. Catherine, is a seaside village about 4 miles from Passage Fort and 6 miles from Spanish Town. It became the sea link to the capital, Spanish Town, with the silting up of the Rio Cobre, and provided much of the stone for the fortifications of the island.
It contains the Long House, a hotel erected about by the entrepreneur John Henderson. A small redoubt was constructed during the frenzy of the invasion scare of The semicircular platform can still be seen about 20 feet up the hillside near the junction of the Fort Augusta Road.
It probably contained about half a dozen guns to prevent landings by small boats. Rodney's Lookout, a signal station, was built on the crest of Port Henderson in response to invasion scares in the early s and was damaged by the earthquake of The ruins are on the top of a flight of steps near the Apostle's Battery.
It was probably renamed following Rodney's victory at the Saintes. The British feared that an invasion might be accomplished by a landing in the Hellshire Hills, where the enemy might evade the guns of Kingston Harbour and enter Spanish Town.
The British built two forts with semicircular platforms, both of which survive. It was heavily armed, to prevent ships supporting an enemy landing, with eight pounders and one inch mortar. Five of the pounders remain, on their original platform with the carriages rotted away, together with the magazine and platform. It was more lightly armed than the other forts, with the intention of resisting infantry troops rather than ships.
The magazine is lost, but the barracks and platform remain with all the original cannon, four pounders and five 6-pounders. The fort is on the opposite side of the bay from the town. It was fortified in the mid-eighteenth century, replacing an earlier fort, Fort William, that was abandoned due to erosion.
There are remnants, but the battery is gone. Port Royal was a British naval base for the Jamaican squadron located in Kingston Harbour on a 7-mile peninsula known as the Palisadoes. The dockyard is next to the site of a sunken city that was once the second-largest town in English America after Boston, until two-thirds of the original town was destroyed by an earthquake and a tidal wave on 7 June The dockyard supplied, refitted, and watered ships of the Royal Navy between and Admiral Sir George Rodney did much to develop the facility when he was the resident commander between and Horatio Nelson first visited the dockyard in May at the age of nineteen, and he commanded the batteries at Fort Charles in After returning to Jamaica from an expedition to Nicaragua in , Nelson was nursed back to life by the colored proprietress of his lodging house, who was called Cubah, or Couba Cornwallis.
The dockyard was defended by a group of fortresses that included Fort Charles, renamed after Charles II, which was built between and It alone among the fortresses encircling the harbor survived the hurricane of It was rebuilt in its present form in to The wooden walkway in Fort Charles is now called Nelson's Quarterdeck. The batteries on the sea front had a double tier of guns that numbered in The fort now contains a maritime museum.
Peter's Church, built in to , contains many naval and military monuments. There are some remains of a fort erected at the eastern end of Port Royal which was called "Prince William Henry's Polygon" when it was completed in , and which was much damaged by the hurricane of The northern bastion is located outside the eastern wall enclosing Morgan's Harbour beach club. There is a museum with archaeological artifacts of the sunken city of Port Royal in the Royal Naval Hospital — Rio Bueno contains the deepest harbor in the island.
Columbus anchored his ships for three days here on his first visit to Jamaica in Fort Dundas was built during the American Revolution and dates from Rockfort dates from It was designed to protect the eastern routes to Kingston. It is largely intact with its large bastion to the south, its entrance gate, its magazine, and its northern curtain dug into the Long Mountain. It was capable of mounting seventeen guns. The sites of the guardhouse and barracks are visible.
There is a track to a redoubt, about feet high and yards east of the fort, on Long Mountain. The Parish Church dates from , although there were earlier structures, and the parish registers date back to It contains many impressive monuments of the eighteenth century. Stony Hill had a garrison and barracks. There is a small magazine that survives. It was to be a last refuge in the hills in the event of an invasion in which the enemy seized the Liguanea plain. Three redoubts were constructed in The first, with a pounder and four 6-pounder cannon, was on the site of the present Fort Belle, just to the north of the bridge and over the gully on the main road out of Kingston.
A smaller, second battery was constructed a few hundred yards northward on the site of the present location of 34 Stilwell Road. The third battery, designed for four guns, remains intact at Bridgemont Heights.
Spanish Town, also known as St. Jago de la Vega, was capital of Jamaica until The impressive buildings around the main square indicate the economic importance of Jamaica to Britain. The King's House, the residence of the governor, was begun during the administration of Lieutenant Governor Henry Moore in to ; he later became governor of New York during the Stamp Act crisis. The house was completed in to following the arrival of Governor William Henry Lyttleton, who was a former governor of South Carolina.
The dimensions are much larger than those of the governor's palace at Williamsburg, the capital of the largest colony in North America Virginia. There is an archaeological museum next to the house and the Jamaican People's Museum of Craft and Technology. The House of the Assembly on the east side of the square took some twenty years to complete from the time it was started around The Rodney Memorial on the north side of the square was commissioned by the island assembly to celebrate the victory of Admiral Sir George Rodney against de Grasse at the battle of the Saintes in The statue was designed by John Bacon, the leading contemporary English sculptor, who portrayed Rodney in classical garb.
The Anglican Cathedral of St. James was built as the parish church of St. Catherine in It contains numerous monuments, including one by Bacon and a memorial to Sir Basil Keith, who died during his tenure as governor in Spanish Town contained a barracks for one of the two peacetime regiments of the British army, but the current structure dates from The Jamaica Archives are housed in the building behind the Rodney Memorial. At the National Library Institute of Jamaica, advance permission to use the library's resources is recommended.
You can find the library at 12 East Street, 6 Kingston, Jamaica, or via telephone at At the Registrar General records of births, baptisms, deaths, burials, and marriages are available. Martinique was the headquarters of the French navy in the Caribbean. It was the base of the French admirals associated with key events in the Revolutionary War—d'Estaing and de Grasse. The square-mile island was settled by the French in and it remains under French government as an overseas department.
In Congress sent the twenty-four-year-old William Bingham as an agent to the island with instructions to procure munitions for the Continental army and to encourage a French alliance against the British. He held court with the captains of American privateers and issued blank commissions for privateers in the American Coffee House in Fort-de-France.
The protection given by the island to American privateers became a major issue between the British government and the court of France. In Sir Samuel Hood unsuccessfully attempted to prevent the entry of de Grasse into Martinique before his junction with additional ships in the harbor and his departure for Yorktown.
Fort-de France, formerly known as Fort Royal, has been the capital of Martinique since Louis gave shelter to the fleet and dates from It is still used by the army, and it has its original ramparts and dungeons. Jacques Dyel du Parquet began construction on the rocky peninsula in the bay in It was attacked by the Dutch in and captured by the English in as well as in and It was much strengthened in the early eighteenth century according to the classic system of Vauban.
It had a moat, which was filled in to become the Boulevard of the Chevalier de Ste. The town was nearly destroyed by a fire in The kitchen, a single stone building, remains from her time; it is now a museum. Plantations and Plantation Houses. Leyritz Plantation dates from the early s, when it was built for a cavalry officer, Michel de Leryritz, who was a native of Bordeaux. It contains a great house, granary, chapel, sugar factory, and original slave huts.
The St. James plantation house is now a museum of the history and production of rum. Pointe du Diamant Diamond Rock is off the southern tip of the western coast and had a fortress. It is visible from Pigeon Island on St. La Poterie, a large clay factory, was established in at Trois Ilets. It includes the manager's house, slave cottages, kilns, stores, administration, and ancillary building. Box , Fort-de-France Cedex. Montserrat was one of the four principal islands in the colony of the British Leeward Islands at the time of the American Revolution.
Following French entry into the American Revolution in , it constantly faced the peril of a French attack, especially during the voyages of Admiral d'Estaing in the spring of On 28 and 29 April of that year the governor expected an imminent invasion by five French ships of the line off the island. In July the French fleet was in sight for three days, during which time the ships exchanged fire with the batteries around Plymouth.
Their aim was the surrender of the island. Following the surrender of St. Kitts in , Montserrat also submitted to the French, but was restored to Britain by the peace in The island was severely damaged by a volcanic eruption of the Soufriere Hills on 18 July which destroyed the capital town of Plymouth. The island is beginning to attract tourists back, but a large area affected by the volcano is prohibited to both visitors and residents in an exclusion zone. The boundary for the exclusion zone is from Plymouth and southwards to St.
Patrick's through Windy Hill and Harris, and down to the east coast at the site of W. Bramble Airport. Nevis was a British colony that was first settled by the English in and that became independent, in a federation with St. Kitts, in It is separated by a strait of 2 miles from St. Alexander Hamilton , the aide-de-camp to George Washington during the Revolutionary War and the secretary of the treasury in the first administration of Washington, was born on Nevis.
There were riots in Nevis against the Stamp Act in Following the entry of France into the American Revolution, this square-mile island was constantly threatened with invasion, especially by Admiral d'Estaing in On 27 April of that year, five of his ships came down in a direct line of battle off Charlestown. The headmost ship, of 84 guns, came within reach of cannon fire. The inhabitants expected an attack at every minute, but the ships tacked and stood to windward.
On 3 May, Admiral Byron was off Nevis looking for de Grasse with 20 ships of the line and 2 frigates. On 22 July the French fleet again passed very near to the forts. In February the island submitted to the French following the surrender of St. Kitts, but was restored to the British by the peace of Bath House was built by John Huggins in It is located near sulphur springs which were believed to have medicinal qualities. As early as , the waters were recommended in an account by Robert Harcourt of Stanton Harcourt near Oxford.
The bathhouse continues to function, but the hotel, which once had a ballroom and was intended to accommodate fifty guests, is in ruins. It commands a pleasant view of St. Kitts and St. Charlestown became the capital after an earthquake damaged Jamestown in Many of the original buildings, including the Court House, were destroyed in the earthquake of It was the scene of Stamp Act riots on 1 November after the collector of stamps fled from St.
Kitts following riots on the night of 31 October. In Charlestown the " Sons of Liberty " burnt two houses and loaded the stamps on to a navy longboat which they then set on fire. He was born out of wedlock some time between and most probably in January of the latter year. His origins were always a cause of embarrassment to him, and the jest of his political opponents in the United States.
He lived on the island until the age of nine, then moved to St. Croix with his mother. The two-story building was constructed around , destroyed in an earthquake in , and then restored in There is a Jewish cemetery in Government Road with nineteen tombstones dating from to Fort Charles guarded the southern entrance to Charlestown and was built in It once enclosed six acres, with thirteen cannon, two bastions facing out to sea, two ramparts, and moats on the leeward side.
The perimeter wall, the cistern, and the powder magazine survive, together with dismounted guns with "G. This was the site where the Nevis Council and President John Herbert met to sign the capitulation terms to the French in February There are also some remains of fortifications at Mosquito Point and a battery at Saddle Hill She was the widow of a local doctor, and he was captain of the H.
The plantation belonged to her uncle, John Herbert, the president of the council of Nevis. It was the largest house on the island at the time. Nelson was in Nevis enforcing the Navigation Acts against illicit trade between the island and the United States. He was virtually prisoner at one time on board his own ship, facing suits from planters who opposed restrictions on the trade with the newly independent United States.
Kitts, St. Eustatius, and Saba. The Nelson Museum is located near Government House. Originally, the collection belonged to Robert Abrahams, a lawyer and author from Philadelphia, who exhibited it at his residence at Morning Star. It includes memorabilia from the life of Admiral Horatio Nelson, including parts of the set of the Royal Worcester china plates commissioned for Nelson's wedding in Nevis.
Nelson spent much of his career in the Caribbean during the American Revolutionary War. The Eden Brown Estate was built in It was never occupied, but is an impressive ruin. Other estate houses include Mount Pleasant, which dates from the s; Mountravers, which has a slave prison, and dates from the s; the Nisbet Plantation House, which has a mill dating to about ; and the Old Manor estate house, near Clay Ghaut, which dates from the late seventeenth century. John's Fig Tree Church. The parish register contains an entry for the marriage of Horatio Nelson to Frances Nisbet in There are tombstones in the graveyard dating from The 3,square-mile island was a Spanish colony between and , when it was ceded to the United States.
During the American Revolution there was much discussion among the British about invading Puerto Rico. Major General John Vaughan drew up plans for such an expedition in December , but the British had too few troops and were largely on the defensive in the Caribbean. Furthermore, like Cuba and the Dominican Republic, the defenses of Puerto Rico were greatly strengthened in the decade before the American Revolution as part of the naval and colonial defense program initiated by Charles III.
The reform of the garrison and improvement in the defenses was implemented by Alejandro O'Reilly and Tomas O'Daly, who were both descendants of "Wild Geese" Irishmen who served with the Spanish army after fleeing the British in Ireland. O'Reilly later presided over the transfer of New Orleans from France to Spain in and became governor of Louisiana — The original batteries were greatly strengthened between and by an engineer named Tomas O'Daly.
It contains a museum relating to the military history of Puerto Rico. It was primarily a military town because the port served the ships sailing between Spain and its colonies in the Americas. La Fortaleza is the city's oldest fortress, built about , with a tower and gate that date from It became a storehouse for bullion and the residence of governors, and it has remained so for four hundred years. The major fortress, the San Felipe del Morro, dates from but it was redesigned during the American Revolution and completed in The six fortified levels rise feet above sea level.
It protected the entrances to the bay and repelled an attack of Drake and Hawkins in The castle has a panoramic view of San Juan. El Canuelo is a small fort in the harbor. The old city is surrounded by the original wall, which dates from The seventeenth-century Carmelite convent is now a hotel called El Convento. It is now a museum which has exhibits on colonial architecture in the old city.
It is now a museum. Box , San Juan, P. Bartholomew is an island of only 8 square miles which was occupied by France in It was briefly captured by the British in January and recaptured by the French on 28 February The French ceded the island in to Sweden in exchange for trading rights at Gothenburg. It was restored to France in For further information contact: St.
Barthelemy St. Croix was the largest Danish colony in the Virgin Islands from until its sale to the United States in At the age of nine Alexander Hamilton moved to the square-mile island with his mother, and there, years later, published his first article, in the Royal Danish American Gazette.
A native of St. The flag he commissioned for them was a forerunner of the Stars and Stripes. He later gave his property for the site of the first presidential house in the United States. On 25 October Frederiksted in St. Croix became the first foreign port to salute the American flag, but it was unofficial, occurring when the ship was leaving the port with a small cargo of gunpowder.
The first official salute is therefore usually attributed to St. Eustatius, in the following November. Alexander Hamilton, together with his mother and brother, lived in a two-story house at 34 Company Street next to the Anglican church after they were abandoned by James Hamilton in His mother ran a shop on the ground floor.
She bought some of her merchandise from the New York merchants David Beekman and Nicholas Cruger, who were to become the patrons of the young Alexander Hamilton. She suddenly died on 19 Feburary , and her small inheritance was claimed by the son by her first marriage, which meant that there was nothing for her two boys by James Hamilton. The boys were then placed under the guardianship of their first cousin, Peter Lytton. On 16 July he committed suicide. His father arrived to adopt the boys but died shortly afterwards, leaving them again orphaned and alone.
Alexander then began to clerk for Beekman and Cruger. He became conversant in several languages and in dealing with different currencies, and traded throughout the Leeward Islands. He moved to the home of Thomas Stevens, a well-respected merchant, in King Street, and also found a mentor in the pastor of the Scottish Presbyterian church, Hugh Knox, who had moved to the island from Saba.
It was through this connection that Hamilton left to study at the Elizabethtown Academy in New Jersey. The Alexander Hamilton House at 55 King Street was built in the s, then rebuilt following a fire in the s. On the same street, 52 King Street is an early-eighteenth-century residence. The old West India and Guinea Company warehouse was built in and is now the post office. The Steeple Building was the first Lutheran church. Fort Christiansvaern and partly rebuilt in and Government House built between and are located on the waterfront of Christiansted; they are a National Historic Site.
The fort is well preserved, with barracks, dungeon, powder magazine, officers, kitchen, battery, battlements, a double entrance staircase, and sally port. Frederiksted lost many of its original buildings owing to a tidal wave in and a fire in Fort Frederik, begun in , was the site of the unofficial first foreign salute of the American flag.
The fort retains its garrison, barracks, arsenal, canteen, stables, courtyard, and commandants' quarters The Grange was the plantation of the maternal aunt of Alexander Hamilton, Ann Faucette, and her husband James Lytton, located outside the capital Christiansted. The couple had left Nevis for St. Hamilton's mother had her ill-fated wedding at the age of sixteen to Johann Michael Lavien in St.
Her husband later had her imprisoned for adultery in the fort, Christiansvaern. Following her release after three to five months in prison she fled the island, leaving behind a son by her marriage, and sought refuge in St. Kitts in Lavien succeeded in obtaining a formal divorce in when Rachel moved to Nevis, where she gave birth to Alexander, whose father was James Hamilton. Lavien referred in the divorce papers to her "whore-children" born after her departure from St.
In April Rachel returned to St. Kitts in a debt-collection case against Alexander Moir in Christiansted. James Hamilton absconded upon the completion of the case, abandoning his wife and children in St. Her sister and brother-in-law, who owned the Grange, had already left the island, sold the plantation, and returned to Nevis. There is a monument erected in her memory by Gertrude Atherton.
Box , Christiansted, St. Croix, Virgin Islands ; phone: ; fax:
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Main languages. Here, you can browse exhibits on the local cocoa industry and sample decadent sweet treats. This is a must for chocoholics! To soak up some local color and buy fresh tropical fruits and spices, stop by the popular Saturday morning market at St. George's Market Square. Accommodation: Where to Stay in St. Underwater Sculpture Park. On the west coast of Grenada, a short drive north of St.
George's at Moliniere Bay, the Underwater Sculpture Park is a unique submerged gallery that also serves as an artificial reef in a marine protected area. Created by artist Jason deCaires Taylor, the sculptures range from Amerindian petroglyphs to life-size figures cast from local children.
Divers, snorkelers, and glass-bottom boat passengers can admire this underwater exhibition, although coming face-to-face with these sculptures below sea level is the best way to appreciate their artistry. Fort Frederick. George's and the sea. The fort has an interesting history. The French began construction of Fort Frederick in , and the British then completed it in It is nicknamed the "backwards facing fort" because its cannons face inland instead of out to sea, thanks to the French who feared a surprise land attack after they used this successful strategy with the British.
In , the fort was abandoned completely until it was later occupied by the Grenadian military. Sampling fragrant spices is one of the most unique things to do in Grenada. You'll find plenty of interesting places to visit where you can learn about the spice industry and see how the plants are cultivated.
About an hour's drive from St. George's, the Belmont Estate offers a variety of tours that explore the organic farm and its tropical fruits and spices. At this 17th-century plantation, you can also learn about the cultivation of cocoa and how the fruit is made into chocolate with tastings along the way.
Serious chocoholics can sign up for a tour, which includes a scrumptious three-course lunch spotlighting chocolate in every course. Other fun things to do here include browsing the small heritage museum and shopping for chocolate-related treats and local crafts. Children will enjoy the petting zoo and all the animal residents, including goats, donkeys, tortoises, and talking parrots.
Your visit begins with a guided tour through the beautiful spice gardens, with tastings and tips on health benefits. For a more rustic experience, stop by the Dougaldston Spice Estate. Here, local workers demonstrate how the island's spices are grown and processed, and you can wander through the old wooden buildings sampling spices as you go. After all these tours, you can stock up on nutmeg, vanilla, cinnamon, cloves and other goodies in the on-site gift shops.
The inner harbor and anchorage, known as the Carenage, is the lively hub of St. It's a lovely place to wander along the waterfront and soak up daily life. Fisherman unload their catch from colorful wooden schooners, locals haggle for the fresh catch of the day, and supplies are unloaded from container ships. You can also browse the shops, or relax at one of the restaurants selling fresh seafood and snacks. Wharf Road runs along the harbor offering great views of the area.
While you're here, look for the bronze Christ of the Deep statue. It was donated by the owners of a luxury liner in gratitude for local rescue efforts after the ship exploded off Grand Anse. Morne Rouge Bay.
Calm, jade-green seas slosh upon this one-and-a-half kilometer crescent of white sand making this one of the safest beaches in Grenada for swimming. Resort restaurants along the beach offer snacks, and the lush foliage fringing the beach provides plenty of shady areas to sit and relax.
You can also rent sun loungers here, as well as paddleboards and snorkel equipment. Home to a rich diversity of plants and animals, Grand Etang National Park, in the interior of the island, offers some beautiful rainforest scenery and rewarding hikes. One of the focal points of the park is the beautiful crater-formed Grand Etang Lake. From the Grand Etang visitor center, several trails lead through the park, ranging from the minute self-guided Morne LaBaye Trail , with many specimens of native plants, to the more challenging Concord Falls Trail , which passes a trio of cascades with swimming areas.
Along the trails you can spot many species of birds, orchids, and towering rainforest trees. Levera National Park. On the northeastern shore of the island, Levera National Park offers some beautiful and dramatic scenery where the Caribbean Sea meets the Atlantic. You'll find some inviting, relatively undeveloped beaches here.
Backed by cliffs, coral-sand Bathways Beach offers pretty views of the pointy-peaked Sugar Loaf Levera Island and other islands in the distance, while a natural offshore reef affords good protection for swimming. Levera Beach is also pretty, with less visitors than Bathways.
Sea turtles frequently nest on the beaches here. Also of interest is Levera Pond, a water-filled, ancient volcanic crater and an important habitat for birds such as black-necked stilts and herons. Stop by the visitor center at the entrance to the park before you visit to find out more about these important habitats.
Fort George. Built in by the French, Fort George lies on the promontory to the west of the harbor and is Grenada's oldest fort. It was built to protect the harbor, but stands mostly derelict today. The main draw here is the spectacular degree view across the town's red-tiled roofs and church spires to the harbor and sea beyond.
Annandale Falls. In the mountains north of St. George's, Annandale Falls is a meter waterfall plunging to a pool tucked in tropical foliage. The short trail to the falls begins at the Annandale Falls Centre. Along the way, you'll see beautiful tropical flowers and foliage, like ferns and wild ginger.
One of the highlights of a visit is watching fearless local divers leap into the water from the top - but be prepared that they may ask for a donation. You can also swim at the base of the cascades, and change rooms are available. If you're seeking a more peaceful waterfall experience, Royal Mount Carmel Falls , on the island's east coast, is worth visiting.
The hike is only about 10 minutes, and you can slide down the rocks and cool off in the crystal-clear pools. La Sagesse. His beachside residence has been renovated and turned into a romantic hotel and restaurant fronting a golden-sand beach, with great swimming in the protected bay. The restaurant here is a lovely spot for lunch, with locally caught seafood dishes and produce plucked fresh from the organic garden. After lunch, you can explore the nature trails that lead up through the windswept hills, with pretty views over the ocean.
The area is also great for birding.