Same sound spectrum on three different intervals. Typical burner noise curve. Same sound spectrum on 3 different intervals. Typical noise signature emitted from a Flare. Shadow photograph of a burning butane lighter. Sound pressure level burner with instability. Development of orderly wave patterns. Region of maximum jet mixing noise. Shock waves downstream of an air jet. Location of screech tone emissions.
Noise radiating from a valve. Burner noise example. The noise contributions separately based on the mathematical model. A typical eductor system. Example eductor system. Normalized plot showing the sonic-supersonic eduction performance in a single steam tube used in a typical steam-. Picture of a radiant wall burner. Picture of a thermal oxidizer. Capacity curves that many burner manufactures use for sizing burners.
Illustration showing the experimental setup utilized to obtain calibration and validation data. Figure 8. Steam-to-hydrocarbon ratios per Leite. Effect of high velocity air: a blower off, b commence blower, and c blower on. Aeration rate was determined and plotted against the scaling function. Standard John Zink oil gun. Schematic of a typical oil gun. Comparison of predicted vs. John Zink Co. Droplet size comparison between a standard and a newer oil gun. Heat transfer in a packed bed between the ceramic material and the air stream.
Installing small, type K thermocouple pairs into numerous ceramic saddles. Summary of saddle data. Rock temp distribution with time. John Zink RTO test unit. Elements in CFD modeling. This view illustrates the complex geometry that necessitates a variety of cell types. This mesh consists of hexahedral, pyramidal, and tetrahedral cell types.
Close-up view of primary tip. CFD model of an ethylene pyrolysis furnace. There are six burners shown in each row at the bottom of the furnace, and the tubes are approximately 35 feet long. The endwalls are not shown in this image. Geometry of a xylene reboiler. This view shows half sliced vertically of the furnace.
Only three of the six burners are shown at the bottom of the image. This surface is colored according to its temperature o F Exterior geometry of the furnace is included in the model. The surface mesh is also shown. Burner geometry. The acid swirl vanes are shown in red; the air swirl vanes are shown in green; and the start-up fuel tip is shown in purple. Oxygen mass fractions viewed from above the furnace. The contour scale is logarithmic. The mass fractions are contoured on the mid-plane of the furnace.
H 2 S mole fractions contoured on the midplane of the furnace. Stoichiometric iso-surface colored by temperature o C for the initial burner design. Midplane of geometry colored by temperature o C. This view shows the burner quarl and the mixing regions of acid. Geometric information describing the thermal oxidizer examined during this study. Two distinct combustion zones are illustrated, with an exit temperature of about K o F.
These predictions depict the CO formation and oxidation zones common to most combustion processes. The predicted maximum Cl 2 concentration, nearly ppmv, occurs in the cooler reactor regions, while an exit Cl 2 concentration of about ppmv is predicted. Re-circulation region in the eductor throat. Re-circulation zone starting to occur in eductor throat.
Re-circulation zone developing in eductor throat. Contours of stream function with increasing backpressure. Fire tetrahedron. Butterworth—Heinemann, Woburn, MA, Trapped steam in a dead-end that can freeze and cause pipe failure. CO detector: a permanent, b portable. Flarestack explosion due to improper purging. Courtesy of T. Plant Disasters, 4th ed.
Vapor pressures for light hydrocarbons. Extreme Cond. Ethylene oxide plant explosion caused by autoignition. Process Plant Disasters, 4th ed. Sanders, Chemical Process Safety:. Graph of sustainable combustion for methane. Typical raw gas burner tips. Typical gas fuel capacity curve. Typical liquid fuel capacity curve.
Typical throat of a raw gas burner. Ledge in the burner tile. Regen tile and swirler. Typical conventional raw gas burner. Typical premix gas burner. Typical radiant wall burner. Programmable logic controller. Touch screen. Simple analog loop. Feedforward loop. Double-block-and-bleed system.
Failsafe input to programmable logic controller. Shutdown string. Typical pipe rack. Inside the control panel. Pneumatic control valve. Control valve characteristics. Thermowell and thermocouple. Velocity thermocouple. Pressure transmitter left and pressure gauge right.
Mechanically linked parallel positioning. Electronically linked parallel positioning. A variation of parallel positioning. The required shape of the air valve characterizer. Fully metered control scheme. Fully metered control scheme with cross limiting. O2 trim of air setpoint. Analog controller with manual reset. Analog controller with automatic reset. Contrast of classical experimentation and SED methods. NOx contours for furnace temperature and oxygen concentration based on Equation A fuel-staged burner.
Municipal solid waste boiler using ammonia injection to control NOx. Method of steepest ascent. Mixture factors, a transformation, and a combined mixture-factorial. Flowchart showing a general sequential experimental strategy. Test furnace for simulation of terrace wall reformers.
Test fuel storage tanks. Forced-draft air preheater. Ellipsoidal radiometer schematic. Heater cutout and burner bolt circle on a new heater. Warped steel on the shell of a heater. Burner improperly installed at an angle due to a warped shell. Donut ring for leveling burner mounting onto the warped shell of a heater. Typical burner drawing. Burner mounted on the side of a heater. Burner mounted on the top of heater.
Burner mounted in a common plenum. Burner in a plenum box mounted to a heater. Piping improperly loaded on the burner inlet. Picture of a burner tile showing multiple tile pieces. Sketch showing a round tile measured in 3 different diameters. Sketch showing a square tile measured at different lengths and widths.
Oil tip in combination burner showing oil tip locations. Welding rods in an oil tip. VYD burner gas tip in a diffuser with a pilot. VYD drawing showing the diffuser cone and the pilot tip. Example of an air register. Typical fuel gas piping system. Typical heavy fuel oil piping system. Typical light fuel oil piping system.
A pat gas tip. Example oil gun atomizer. Catatlyst deposit within an oil burner tile. Typical diffuser cone. Typical spin diffuser. Example of a damaged stabilizer. Example of a damaged pilot tip. New ST-1S pilot tip without an electronic ignitor. New ST-1SE pilot with an electronic ignitor. Typical draft measurement points. Excess air indication by oxygen content. Location for measuring excess oxygen. Oxygen analyzer. Cost of operating with higher excess oxygen levels natural gas.
Cost of operating with higher excess oxygen levels 6 oil. Fuel gas pressure measurement. Graph of fuel pressure vs. Viscosity vs temperature for a range of hydrocarbons. Air control device schematic. Picture of air control device. Primary air door. Burner ignition ledge. Gas tips. Oil tips. Logic diagram for tuning a natural draft heater. Logic diagram for tuning a balanced draft heater. Broken burner tile. Dark line or black streaks on hot refractory surface indicating air leaks. Coke deposit causes tube thinning.
Damaged diffuser cone. Effect of excess O 2 on NOx in raw gas burners. Effect of combustion air temperature on NOx. Effect of bound nitrogen in the liquid fuel on NOx. Effect of burner model on NOx. Staged air burner.
Staged fuel burner. Ultra low NOx burner. Typical plant schematic. Cogeneration at Teesside, England. Louis, MO. Courtesy of Ms. Martha Butala, Dabhol Power Company,. Bombay, India, as published in Power Magazine. Typical location of duct burners in an HRSG. Courtesy of Deltak, Minneapolis, MN. Fluidized bed startup duct burner. An inline burner. Linear burner elements. Approximate requirement for augmenting air.
Duct burner arrangement. Physical model of burner. Drilled pipe duct burner. Low emission duct burner. Effect of conditions on CO formation. Typical main oil fuel train: single element. Typical main oil fuel train: multiple elements. Typical pilot oil train: single element. Typical pilot oil train: multiple elements. Typical utility boilers. Typical single-burner industrial boiler. Courtesy of North Carolina Baptist Hospital. Swirl burner. A typical low-NOx burner, venturi-style.
A typical low-NOx burner, a venturi-style second example. The effects of boiler design on NOx. The NOx of various boilers included in the database on oil and gas, respectively. NOx generation for natural gas and No. NOx vs. Relative NOx vs. Effect of furnace cleanliness on NOx emissions. Effect of air in-leakage on the burner performance. A scaled, physical, aerodynamic simulation model.
Relative NOx concentration vs. NOx reduction vs. Full load NOx reduction data. Data comparing single and three-stage gas combustion. Schematic for typical low NOx burner. Combustion low NOx burner. An ultra-low emissions burner. Outer sleeve contains a second set of gas injector vanes attached to an outer gas reservoir. The ultra-low emissions burner can also be used on two-burner applications where NFPA guidelines are being.
Multiple ZTOF installation in an ethylene plant. API radiation geometry. Comparison of stack height and relative cost for various radiation calculation methods. Effectiveness of steam in smoke suppression. Effectiveness of air in smoke suppression. Perimeter:area ratio as a function of tip size.
Courtesy of Shell Canada Ltd. Multi-point LRGO system with a radiation fence. Fundamental pilot parts. SoundProof acoustic pilot monitor. Cyclone separator. Schematic of a vertical liquid seal. Various seal head designs.
Airrestor T M velocity-type purge reduction seal. Schematic of a ZTOF. Demountable derrick. Flare support structure selection guide. Steam control valve station. Staging control valve assembly. Loop seal. Purge control station. Geometry for dispersion calculations. Typical natural-draft burner. Typical medium pressure drop burner. Typical high pressure drop burner. Typical horizontal system with a preheat exchanger.
Watertube boiler. Firetube boiler. Typical all-welded shell-and-tube heat exchanger. Regenerative preheat exchanger. Direct spray contact quench. Submerged quench. Adjustable-plug venturi quench. Dry electrostatic precipitator. Horizontal venturi scrubber. Wet electrostatic precipitator. Simple packed column. Two-stage acid gas removal system.
Three-stage NOx reduction process. Two-stage NOx reduction process. Selective noncatalytic reduction system. Simple thermal oxidizer. Thermal oxidizer system generating steam. Heat recovery thermal oxidation system. Bypass recuperative system. Chlorine reaction equilibrium vs.
Molten salt system. Online cleaning with soot blowers. Three-stage NOx system with packed column scrubber. About the Editor. He previously worked for 13 years at Air Products and Chemi- cals, Inc. He has a Ph. He has taught public courses on this topic for many years, publishing extensive notes.
He has an M. He has a B. Lawrence D. He holds four U. I-Ping Chung, Ph. She has authored 14 publications and has two patents. Michael G. He has co-authored a number of papers and presentations covering combustion, combustion equipment, and combustion-generated emissions, and is co-holder of several combustion-related patents. Joseph Colannino, P. Terry worked pre- viously for the John Zink Company as a Combustion Test Engineer, focusing on product testing, burner development, and combustion safety.
For many years, he has conducted company training classes for Control Engineers and Technicians. Karl Graham, Ph. He has worked with burners for utility and industrial boiler applications for seven years and has a Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering.
He has authored eight publications and holds three patents. Michael Henneke, Ph. He holds a Ph. Jaiwant D. Jay has an M. He has authored several technical articles and papers over the years, and has several patents pending. He graduated from the University of Tulsa in and holds a B. Michael Lorra, Ph. Previous to that, he worked at Gaswaerme Institut, Essen, Germany, e. He gained experience in NO x reduction techniques, especially in reburn- ing technology.
His specialty is combustion of all types of. Melton has been a Registered Professional Engineer for more than 20 years. Robert E. Schwartz, P. Schwartz has been granted 50 U. Prem C. Singh, Ph. He has authored more than 50 publications and is a contrib- utor to a book on coal technology published by Delft Uni- versity of Technology. Joseph D. Smith, Ph. He has authored 27 peer-reviewed publications, 16 invited lectures, 19 conference papers, two patents, and has organized and directed three special symposia.
Stephen L. He has 32 years of. Lev Tsirulnikov, Ph. Richard T. Waibel, Ph. He has authored over 70 technical papers, publications, and presentations. He has authored three publications and is a licensed professional mechanical engineer in California. Roger H. Roger has a B.
Roger is a member of the Tulsa Engi- neering Society. Table of Contents. Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: Fundamentals. Joseph Colannino and Charles E. Chapter 3: Heat Transfer. Jayakaran, Robert Hayes, and Charles E. Chapter 4: Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics.
Berg, Wes Bussman, and Michael Henneke. Chapter 5: Fuels. Chapter 6: Pollutant Emissions. Chapter 7: Noise. Wes Bussman and Jaiwant D. Chapter 8: Mathematical Modeling of Combustion Systems. Michael Henneke, Joseph D. Smith, Michael Lorra, and Jaiwant D. We find an additional minimum in the total energy of such systems, corresponding to the solitons as clusters on the nuclear surface. By introducing the shell effects we choose this minimum to be degenerated with the ground state.
The spectroscopic factor is given by ratio of the square amplitudes in the two minima. Tavares, O. The tightly bound nuclei in the liquid drop model. The Lagrange method of multipliers is used to arrive at these results, while we have let the values of A and Z take continuous fractional values.
The shell model that shows why 62Ni is the most tightly bound nucleus is outlined. A brief account on stellar nucleosynthesis is presented to show why 56Fe is more abundant than 62Ni and 58Fe. We believe that the analytical proof presented in this paper can be a useful tool to the instructors to introduce the nucleus with the highest mean binding energy per nucleon. Liquid-drop model applied to heavy ions irradiation. Liquid-drop model is used, previously applied in the study of radiation damage in metals, in an energy range not covered by molecular dynamics, in order to understand experimental data of particle tracks in an organic material Makrofol E , which cannot be accurately described by the existing theoretical methods.
The nuclear and electronic energy depositions are considered for each ion considered and the evolution of the thermal explosion is evaluated. The experimental observation of particle tracks in a region previously considered as 'prohibited' are justified. Although the model used has free parameters and some discrepancies with the experimental diametrical values exist, the agreement obtained is highly superior than that of other existing models.
Acoustic levitation of liquid drops : Dynamics, manipulation and phase transitions. The technique of acoustic levitation normally produces a standing wave and the potential well of the sound field can be used to trap small objects. In this article, we survey the works on drop dynamics in acoustic levitation, focus on how the dynamic behavior is related to the rheological properties and discuss the possibility to develop a novel rheometer based on this technique.
We review the methods and applications of acoustic levitation for the manipulation of both liquid and solid samples and emphasize the important progress made in the study of phase transitions and bio-chemical analysis. We also highlight the possible open areas for future research. All rights reserved. Ternary fission in an effective liquid drop model.
Duarte, Sergio B. Full text follows: The nuclear partition in three fragments has been observed in recent experiments for fission process of Cf and 24 '0 Pu. We apply the Effective Liquid Drop Model ELDM , successfully used for discussing binary cold fission and cluster emissions for a three center geometric shape parametrization, describing the quasi-molecular deformation which can lead to ternary fragmentation. A preliminary calculation for rates of these processes are performed and the results are compared to the rate of the dominant binary fission process.
A large range of parent nuclei spherical and deformed is covered in the calculation. The purpose is to point out others possible ternary fission process experimentally measurable. Sound response of superheated drop bubble detectors to neutrons. The sound response of the bubble detectors to neutrons by using Cf neutron source was described. Sound signals were filtered by sound card and PC. The short-time signal energy.
FFT spectrum, power spectrum, and decay time constant were got to determine the authenticity of sound signal for bubbles. Mount makes liquid nitrogen-cooled gamma ray detector portable. Liquid nitrogen-cooled gamma ray detector system is made portable by attaching the detector to a fixture which provides a good thermal conductive path between the detector and the liquid nitrogen in a dewar flask and a low heat leak path between the detector and the external environment.
Radioactive flow detectors : liquid or solid scintillators. During the past five years, two schools of thought have emerged producing two different types of radio-HPLC detectors. Based on the naphthalene-in-the-vial principle, manufacturers have developed heterogeneous scintillation detectors. In these detectors the anthracene or naphthalene crystals are replaced by other scintillators. In order to avoid dead space and turbulence, a narrow diameter tube is used, either straight, or more popularly formed into a coil or a 'U' as the cell.
To optimize light transmission to the photomultiplier tubes, mirrors are used. Due to limiting factors in this technique the counting efficiency for tritium is below the 10 percent level. The other school of radio-HPLC detectors based their design on classical liquid scintillation counting technology. In a homogeneous detector , the effluent from the HPLC system is mixed with a suitable liquid scintillator before entering the counting cell.
The cell design is typically a flat glass or Teflon coil tightly sandwiched between two photomultiplier tubes, making good optical contact without the use of mirrors. Depending on the chromatographic effluent, 3 H efficiencies between 25 to 50 percent, and 14 C counting efficiencies up to 85 percent can be achieved. Large open volume not segmented liquid scintillation detectors have been generally dedicated to low energy neutrino measurements, in the MeV energy region. When considering the physics potential of new large instruments the possibility of doing useful measurements with higher energy neutrino interactions has been overlooked.
Here we take into account Fermat's principle, which states that the first light to reach each PMT will follow the shortest path between that PMT and the point of origin. We describe the geometry of this process, and the resulting wavefront, which we are calling the 'Fermat surface', and discuss methods of using this surface to extract directional track information and particle identification.
Also, this methodology opens up the question as to whether a large liquid scintillator detector should be given consideration for use in a future long-baseline experiment from Fermilab to the DUSEL underground laboratory at Homestake. Liquid -Xe detector for contraband detection. Vartsky, D. We describe progress made with a liquid -Xe LXe detector coupled to a gaseous photomultiplier GPM , for combined imaging and spectroscopy of fast neutrons and gamma-rays in the MeV range. The purpose of this detector is to enable the detection of hidden explosives and fissile materials in cargo and containers.
The expected position resolution is about 2 m and 3. Initial results obtained with the position-sensitive GPM are presented. Crouch, M. A low-cost detector 18' x 2' x 5' has been developed for an underground cosmic ray neutrino experiment. The liquid employed is a high-clarity mineral oil-based mixture, and light is guided to the ends of the detector by total internal reflection at the surface of the Lucite container.
Signals from 2 five-inch photomultipliers at each end give energy and event location for single penetrating particles, with relatively good discrimination against natural radioactivity by virtue of the substantial thickness. Data are presented on the response function of the tank, energy resolution, rates and thresholds.
A number of modifications that have been tried are also described. Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics.
The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor. On the semiclassical description of nuclear Fermi liquid drops. In this series of lectures we aimed at presenting a self-contained semiclassical theory entirely based on the extended Thomas-Fermi or Wigner-Kirkwood h expansion in phase space.
We saw that not only the Wigner transform of the single particle density matrix can be understood and very accurately represented in this way but that also generalisations to correlation functions are straightforward. First, we demonstrated a generalisation to superfluid nuclei and to superfluid nuclei in slow rotation. The latter involves already the static particle-hole correlation function and we saw how e.
We very clearly pointed out the necessity to treat particles holes individually in Thomas Fermi approximation. Liquid -gas mass transfer at drop structures. In this study, experimental work was carried out to analyze the influence of characteristics of drops on reaeration. Physical models were built, mimicking typical In total, tests were performed. Based on their results, empirical expressions translating the relationship between the mass transfer of oxygen and physical parameters of drop structures were Then, by applying the two-film theory with two-reference substances, the relation to hydrogen sulfide release was defined.
By quantifying the air-water mass transfer rates We have tested the operation and performance of bare HPGe detectors in liquid nitrogen and in liquid argon over more than three years with three non-enriched p-type prototype detectors.
The detector handling and mounting procedures have been defined and the Phase-I detector technology, the low-mass assembly and the long-term stability in liquid argon have been tested successfully. The Phase-I detectors were reprocessed by Canberra Semiconductor NV, Olen, according to their standard technology but without the evaporation of a passivation layer.
After their reprocessing, the detectors have been mounted in their low-mass holders and their characterisation in liquid argon performed. The leakage current, the counting characteristics and the efficiency of the detectors have been measured. Fundamental investigation on electrostatic travelling-wave transport of a liquid drop.
Basic research has been carried out on the transport of a liquid drop and a soft body in an electrostatic travelling field. A conveyer consisting of parallel electrodes was constructed and a four-phase electrostatic travelling wave was applied to the electrodes to transport the drop on the conveyer.
The following were clarified by the experiment. A simple model was proposed to simulate the dynamics of the drop in the electrostatic travelling field. Vertical vibration dynamics of acoustically levitated drop containing two immiscible liquids. We have studied the levitation and oscillation dynamics of complex drops containing two immiscible liquids.
Two types of drops , core-shell drop and abnormal-shaped drop , have been obtained depending on the levitation procedures. The oscillation dynamics of the drops have been studied using a high speed camera. It has been found that the oscillation of the abnormal-shaped drop has a longer oscillation period and decays much faster than that of the core-shell drop , which cannot be accounted for by the air resistance itself. The acoustic streaming induced by ultrasound may bring an additional force against the motion of the drop due to the Bernoulli effect.
This is responsible for the enhanced damping during the oscillation in acoustic levitation. Spillage detector for liquid chromatography systems. A spillage detector device for use in conjunction with fractionation of liquid chromatography systems which includes a spillage recieving enclosure beneath the fractionation area is described.
A sensing device having a plurality of electrodes of alternating polarity is mounted within the spillage recieving enclosure. Detection circuitry, responsive to conductivity between electrodes, is operatively connected to the sensing device. The detection circuitry feeds into the output circuitry.
The output circuit has relaying and switching circuitry directed to a solenoid, an alarm system and a pump. The solenoid is connected to the pliable conduit of the chromatography system. The alarm system comprises an audio alarm and a visual signal. A volt power system interconnected with the pump, the solenoid, the sensing device, and the detection and output circuitry.
Liquid -metal pin-fin pressure drop by correlation in cross flow. The pin-fin configuration is widely used as a heat transfer enhancement method in high-heat-flux applications. Recently, the pin-fin design with liquid -metal coolant was also applied to synchrotron-radiation beamline devices.
This paper investigates the pressure drop in a pin-post design beamline mirror with liquid gallium as the coolant. Because the pin-post configuration is a relatively new concept, information in literature about pin-post mirrors or crystals is rare, and information about the pressure drop in pin-post mirrors with liquid metal as the coolant is even more sparse. Due to this the authors considered the cross flow in cylinder-array geometry, which is very similar to that of the pin-post, to examine the pressure drop correlation with liquid metals over pin fins.
The cross flow of fluid with various fluid characteristics or properties through a tube bank was studied so that the results can be scaled to the pin-fin geometry with liquid metal as the coolant. Study lead to two major variables to influence the pressure drop : fluid properties, viscosity and density, and the relative length of the posts. Correlation of the pressure drop between long and short posts and the prediction of the pressure drop of liquid metal in the pin-post mirror and comparison with an existing experiment are addressed.
Liquids confined between two parallel plates can perform the function of transmission, support, or lubrication in many practical applications, due to which to maintain liquids stable within their working area is very important. However, instabilities may lead to the formation of leaking drops outside the bulk liquid , thus it is necessary to transport the detached drops back without overstepping the working area and causing destructive leakage to the system. In this study, we report a novel and facile method to solve this problem by introducing the wedgelike geometry into the parallel gap to form a parallel-nonparallel combinative construction.
Transport performances of this structure were investigated. The criterion for self-propelled motion was established, which seemed more difficult to meet than that in the nonparallel gap. Then, we performed a more detailed investigation into the drop dynamics under squeezing and relaxing modes because the drops can surely return in hydrophilic combinative gaps, whereas uncertainties arose in gaps with a weak hydrophobic character.
Therefore, through exploration of the transition mechanism of the drop motion state, a crucial factor named turning point was discovered and supposed to be directly related to the final state of the drops. On the basis of the theoretical model of turning point, the criterion to identify whether a liquid drop returns to the parallel part under squeezing and relaxing modes was achieved.
These criteria can provide guidance on parameter selection and structural optimization for the combinative gap, so that the destructive leakage in practical productions can be avoided. Hydrodynamic shrinkage of liquid CO2 Taylor drops in a straight microchannel. A general form of a mathematical model of the solvent-side mass transfer coefficient ks is developed first.
Based on formulations of the surface area A and the volume V of a general Taylor drop in a rectangular microchannel, a specific form of ks is derived. Drop length and speed are experimentally measured at three specified positions of the straight channel, namely, immediately after drop generation position 1 , the midpoint of the channel position 2 and the end of the channel position 3. Using the specific model, ks is calculated mainly based on Lx and drop flowing time t.
A new hybrid optical system, consisting of reflection-refracted shadowgraphy and top-view photography, is used to visualize flow phenomena and simultaneously measure the spreading and instant dynamic contact angle in a volatile- liquid drop on a nontransparent substrate. Thermocapillary convection in the drop , induced by evaporation, and the drop real-time profile data are synchronously recorded by video recording systems.
Experimental results obtained from this unique technique clearly reveal that thermocapillary convection strongly affects the spreading process and the characteristics of dynamic contact angle of the drop. Comprehensive information of a sessile drop , including the local contact angle along the periphery, the instability of the three-phase contact line, and the deformation of the drop shape is obtained and analyzed.
Experimental characterization of MHD pressure drop of liquid sodium flow under uniform magnetic field. Magnetic field has many effects on the hydraulic pressure drop of fluids with high electrical conductivity. The theoretical solution about MHD pressure drop is sought for the uniform current density model with simplified physical geometry.
Using the MHD equation in the rectangular duct of the sodium liquid flow under a transverse magnetic field, the electrical potential is sought in terms of the duct geometry and the electrical parameters of the liquid metal and duct material.
By the product of the induced current inside the liquid metal and transverse magnetic field, the pressure gradients is found as a function of the duct size and the electrical conductivity of the liquid metal. The theoretically predicted pressure drop is compared with experimental results on the change of flow velocity and magnetic flux density. The density of liquid Ni-Ta alloys was measured by using a modified sessile drop method. It is found that the density of the liquid Ni-Ta alloys decreases with the increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of tantalum concentration in the alloys.
The molar volume of liquid Ni-Ta binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and tantalum concentration. Here, we show that an analogous long-range interaction occurs between adjacent droplets on.
Influence of dispersion degree of water drops on efficiency of extinguishing of flammable liquids. Full Text Available Depending on the size of water drops , process of fire extinguishing is focused either in a zone of combustion or on a burning liquid surface. This article considers two alternate solutions of a heat balance equation.
The first solution allows us to trace decrease of temperature of a flammable liquid FL surface to a temperature lower than fuel flash point at which combustion is stopped. And the second solution allows us to analyze decrease of burnout rate to a negligible value at which steam-air mixture becomes nonflammable. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems. Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon LAr detectors are presented.
Liquefied noble gas-based LNbG detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials SNM. Two liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe LArXe.
The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3. A new liquid xenon scintillation detector for positron emission tomography. A new positron-sensitive detector of annihilation photons filled with liquid xenon is proposed for positron emission tomography.
Simultaneous detection of both liquid xenon scintillation and ionization current produces a time resolution of detectors are discussed. New algorithms of Compton scattering can be used. Silicon surface barrier detectors used for liquid hydrogen density measurement. Multichannel system employing a radioisotope radiation source, strontium, radiation detector , and a silicon surface barrier detector , measures the local density of liquid hydrogen at various levels in a storage tank.
The instrument contains electronic equipment for collecting the density information, and a data handling system for processing this information. High purity liquid phase epitaxial gallium arsenide nuclear radiation detector. Low energy isotopes are resolved including Am at 40 deg C. A general form of a mathematical model of the solvent-side mass transfer coefficient k s is developed first.
Based on formulations of the surface area A and the volume V of a general Taylor drop in a rectangular microchannel, a specific form of k s is derived. Using the specific model, k s is calculated mainly based on L x and drop flowing time t. Measurement and modelling results. The paper analyzes and discusses possibility of neutron flux inspection in the WWER core during fast dynamic processes applying existing in-core monitoring system.
The structure and functions of the system, basic principal of detector functioning and its temporal parameters are described briefly. To assess the ability of such dynamic monitoring the event with control rod drop happened during operation of Kozloduy NPP Unit 5 is observed - at the level of power close to nominal one of the rod from control group shifted to the lowest position at-2 seconds.
In-core detectors readings at the process were registered and processed with mathematical methods that allow to single out only the prompt part of the signal. Results of the processing are presented. Results of modeling are presenting in a paper, and comparing with experimental ones.
A good agreement achieved. The analysis of measurements and its imitation give a hope that with an aggregate signal of detectors the measurement of control rod worth could be provided, and it allows to avoid of influence of spatial effects that are significant at standard technique with ex-core ion chambers Authors.
The automatic liquid nitrogen filling system for GDA detectors. Headspace liquid -phase microextraction of methamphetamine and amphetamine in urine by an aqueous drop. The analytes, volatile and basic, were released from sample matrix into the headspace first, and then protonated and dissolved in an aqueous H 3 PO 4 drop hanging in the headspace by a HPLC syringe.
After extraction, this drop was directly injected into HPLC. Parameters affecting extraction efficiency were investigated and optimized. This method showed good linearity in the investigated concentration range of 1. Enrichment factors of about fold and fold were achieved for MAP and AP, respectively, at optimum conditions.
The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by analyzing human urine samples. This thesis is concerned with the use of an electric field in the extraction of liquid drops from a capillary orifice or nozzle. The motivating application is ink jet printing. Current drop -on-demand ink jets use pressure pulses to eject drops.
Literature on electrostatic spraying suggests that by using an electric field, drops could be produced with a wider range of sizes and speeds than is possible with pressure ejection. Previous efforts to apply electric spraying to printing or similar selective coating tasks have taken an experimental approach based on steady or periodic spraying phenomena, without attempting cycle -by-cycle drop control. The centerpiece of this thesis is a simulation tool developed to explore such possibilities.
A simplified analytic model is developed as a preliminary step, yielding formulas for force and time scales that provide an appropriate basis for nondimensionalization of the governing differential equations; important dimensionless parameters are identified. The complete self-consistent model permits simulation of meniscus behavior under time -varying applied voltage or pressure, with the electric field solution continually updated as the surface changes shape.
The model uses a quasi-one-dimensional hydrodynamic formulation and a two-dimensional axisymmetric boundary element solution for the electric field. The simulation is checked against experimental results for meniscus stability, resonant modes, and drop emission under electric field.
The simulation faithfully captures important qualitative aspects of meniscus behavior and gives reasonable quantitative agreement within the limitations of the model. Insights gained in simulation point the way to a successful laboratory demonstration of drop extraction using a shaped voltage pulse.
Drop size control is pursued in simulation using pressure and voltage pulses both alone and in combination, for both light and viscous liquids. Combining pressure and field pulses is shown to be. Monte Carlo evaluation of the neutron detection efficiency of a superheated drop detector.
Neuron dosimetry has recently gained renewed attention, following concerns on the exposure of crew members on board aircraft, and of workers around the increasing number of high energy accelerators for medical and research purpose. At the same time the new operational qualities for radiation dosimetry introduced by ICRU and the ICRP, aiming at a unified metrological system applicable to all types of radiation exposure, involved the need to update current devices in order to meet new requirements.
The detectors were characterised through calibrations with monoenergetic neutron beams and where experimental investigations were inadequate or impossible, such as in the intermediate energy range , parametric Monte Carlo calculations of the response were carried out. This report describes the general characteristic of the SDDs along with the Monte Carlo computations of the energy response and a comparison with the experimental results.
This system processes signals from approximately 44, calorimeter towers and is unusual in that most electronic functions are packaged within the detector itself as opposed to an external electronics support rack. The signal path from the towers in the liquid argon through the vacuum to the outside of the detector is explained.
The organization of the control logic, analog electronics, power regulation, analog-to-digital conversion circuits, and fiber optic drivers mounted directly on the detector are described. Redundancy considerations for the electronics and cooling issues are discussed. On the equilibrium contact angle of sessile liquid drops from molecular dynamics simulations.
We present a new methodology to estimate the contact angles of sessile drops from molecular simulations by using the Gaussian convolution method of Willard and Chandler [J. B , ] to calculate the coarse-grained density from atomic coordinates. The iso-density contour with average coarse-grained density value equal to half of the bulk liquid density is identified as the average liquid -vapor LV interface.
Angles between the unit normal vectors to the average LV interface and unit normal vector to the solid surface, as a function of the distance normal to the solid surface, are calculated. The cosines of these angles are extrapolated to the three-phase contact line to estimate the sessile drop contact angle.
The sessile drop contact angles estimated with our methodology for the first two systems are shown to be in good agreement with the angles predicted from Young's equation. The interfacial tensions required for this equation are computed by employing the test-area perturbation method for the corresponding planar interfaces. Our findings suggest that the widely adopted spherical-cap approximation should be used with caution, as it could take a long time for a sessile drop to relax to a spherical shape, of the order of ns, especially for water molecules initiated in a lattice configuration on a solid surface.
But even though a water drop can take a long time to reach the spherical shape, we find that the contact angle is well established much faster and the drop evolves toward the spherical shape following a constant-contact-angle relaxation dynamics. Making use of this observation, our methodology allows a good estimation of the sessile drop contact. Detector for the liquid carried over in a gas.
This report describes an optical detector for the detection of a liquid carried over by a gas. The device is sensitive to a cumulated quantity of liquid equal to a few cubic millimetres and is capable of operating an alarm from a distance. The prototype was constructed and tested as detector for the oil leaking in the argon compressed by a diaphragm compressor.
A patent for this apparatus under the number: P. An efficient energy response model for liquid scintillator detectors. Liquid scintillator detectors are playing an increasingly important role in low-energy neutrino experiments. In this article, we describe a generic energy response model of liquid scintillator detectors that provides energy estimations of sub-percent accuracy.
This model fits a minimal set of physically-motivated parameters that capture the essential characteristics of scintillator response and that can naturally account for changes in scintillator over time, helping to avoid associated biases or systematic uncertainties. The model employs a one-step calculation and look-up tables, yielding an immediate estimation of energy and an efficient framework for quantifying systematic uncertainties and correlations.
Development of membrane cryostats for large liquid argon neutrino detectors. In the present design, the detector will be located inside cryostats filled with 68, ton of ultrapure liquid argon less than parts per trillion of oxygen equivalent contamination. To qualify the membrane technology for future very large-scale and underground implementations, a strong prototyping effort is ongoing: several smaller detectors of growing size with associated cryostats and cryogenic systems will be designed and built at Fermilab and CERN.
They will take physics data and test different detector elements, filtration systems, design options and installation procedures. In addition, a 35 ton prototype is already operational at Fermilab and will take data with single-phase detector in early After the prototyping phase, the multi-kton detector will be constructed.
After commissioning, it will detect and study ne Fragmentation of molten copper drop caused by entrapment of liquid sodium. In core meltdown accidents, it is possible to occur thermal interactions between molten fuel and coolant. Analysis of the steam explosion, which is one of the most severe phenomena in such thermal interactions, is important for the safety evaluation. The steam explosion is a phenomenon that intensive pressure waves are caused by the explosive thermal interaction between high and low temperature liquids , and is considered to be one of the phenomena that can cause a serious failure of the nuclear reactor structures.
In a large-scale steam explosion, the fragmentation of hot molten material causes a rapid increase of heat transfer area, and it is achieved to transmit instantaneously a large amount of heat to coolant. Two ideas are chiefly considered as the mechanism of the fragmentation.
The one is the hypothesis that hydrodynamic effect causes fragmentation of hot liquid. According to this hypothesis, the high temperature drops flake off from the surface. The other is that fragmentation is caused by the interface instability accompanied by collapse of the steam bubble formed around a hot liquid. In this research, the possibility of the internal fragmentation caused by the coolant jet is focused in.
Experiments were conducted on the condition that the surface of melt drops solidify at the moment drops contact the coolant. The possibility of the fragmentation of hot liquid from its surface was eliminated in this condition. To satisfy this condition, molten copper was chosen as hot liquid , and liquid sodium was used as coolant to verify the effect of the driving force of the sodium jet. Small-amplitude vibrations at a finite temperature in the liquid drop model.
The ground state of a hot nucleus is studied in the classical limit. The equations of motion and boundary conditions of the liquid drop model are derived from the variational principle. The effect of the surface tension is taken into account. The temperature dependence of small-amplitude vibrations in the liquid drop model is investigated. It is shown that the breathing mode suffers a 6. It is also found that the surface modes will show an appreciable temperature dependence if a reasonable temperature dependence of the surface tension is postulated.
It is shown that the model satisfies the energy-weighted sum rule and the inverse energy-weighted sum rule. Fission barriers within the liquid drop model with the surface-curvature term. The influence of the congruence energy as well as the compression term on the barrier heights is discussed within this new macroscopic model. The r. The effect of the compression term in the liquid drop energy has rather weak influence on the barrier heights.
Impact of a single drop on the same liquid : formation, growth and disintegration of jets. One of the simplest splashing scenarios results from the impact of a single drop on on the same liquid. The traditional understanding of this process is that the impact generates a jet that later breaks up into secondary droplets. Recently it was shown that even this simplest of scenarios is more complicated than expected because multiple jets can be generated from a single impact event and there are bifurcations in the multiplicity of jets.
First, we study the formation, growth and disintegration of jets following the impact of a drop on a thin film of the same liquid using a combination of numerical simulations and linear stability theory. We obtain scaling relations from our simulations and use these as inputs to our stability analysis. We also use experiments and numerical simulations of a single drop impacting on a deep pool to examine the bifurcation from a single jet into two jets. Using high speed X-ray imaging methods we show that vortex separation within the drop leads to the formation of a second jet long after the formation of the ejecta sheet.
Depending on the size of water drops , process of fire extinguishing is focused either in a zone of combustion or on a burning liquid surface. And the second solution allows us to analyze decrease of burnout rate to a negligible value at which steam Maximum spreading of liquid drop on various substrates with different wettabilities. This paper describes a novel model developed for a priori prediction of the maximal spread of a liquid drop on a surface.
As a first step, a series of experiments were conducted under precise control of the initial drop diameter, its falling height, roughness, and wettability of dry surfaces. The transient liquid spreading was recorded by a high-speed camera to obtain its maximum spreading under various conditions. Eight preexisting models were tested for accurate prediction of the maximum spread; however, most of the model predictions were not satisfactory except one, in comparison with our experimental data.
A comparative scaling analysis of the literature models was conducted to elucidate the condition-dependent prediction characteristics of the models. The conditioned bias in the predictions was mainly attributed to the inappropriate formulations of viscous dissipation or interfacial energy of liquid on the surface. Hence, a novel model based on energy balance during liquid impact was developed to overcome the limitations of the previous models. As a result, the present model was quite successful in predicting the liquid spread in all the conditions.
Density of liquid NiCoAlCr quarternary alloys measured by modified sessile drop method. It is found that with increasing temperature and chromium concentration in the alloys, the densities of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys decrease, whereas the molar volume of the liquid NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys increases.
And the liquid densities of NiCoAlCr quaternary alloys calculated from the partial molar volumes of nickel, cobalt, aluminum and chromium in the corresponding Ni-bases binary alloys are in good agreement with the experimental ones, i. The molar volume of liquid NiCoAlCr binary alloy shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing and the deviation changes small with the increase of chromium concentration at the same temperature.
It has been found that the density of the liquid Ni-Mo alloys decreases with increasing temperature, but increases with the increase of molybdenum concentration in the alloys. The molar volume of liquid Ni-Mo binary alloys increases with the increase of temperature and molybdenum concentration. The partial molar volume of molybdenum in Ni-Mo binary alloy has been approximately calculated as [ The molar volume of Ni-Mo alloy determined in the present work shows a negative deviation from the ideal linear mixing molar volume.
Sodium chloride crystallization from thin liquid sheets, thick layers, and sessile drops in microgravity. Crystallization from aqueous sodium chloride solutions as thin liquid sheets, 0. Different crystal morphologies resulted based on the fluid geometry: tabular hoppers, hopper cubes, circular -oriented crystals, and dendrites.
The addition of polyethylene glycol PEG inhibited the hopper growth resulting in flat-faced surfaces. In sessile drops , mm tabular hopper crystals formed on the free surface and moved to the fixed contact line at the support polycarbonate or gelatin self-assembling into a shell.
Ring formation created by sessile drop evaporation to dryness was observed but with crystals times larger than particles in terrestrially formed coffee rings. No hopper pyramids formed. By choosing solution geometries offered by microgravity, we found it was possible to selectively grow crystals of preferred morphologies.
E-mail: yhe jjay. Adhesion properties of an elastomer enhanced by the presence of liquid drops in its structure. Macro-cellular polymers present rich mechanical properties due to the internal structuration of the material, in which discrete cells are tightly packed within a continuous polymeric solid matrix.
The size, shape, organisation and volume fraction of these cells have an important influence on the overall material properties. Here, we study a solid emulsion which consist of liquid polyethylene glycol drops in a crosslinked PDMS polydimethylsiloxane. These present novel rheological and adhesive properties.
This was reported for 2D systems, and in this work we study the influence of the drop sizes inside the matrix, their density and the viscosity of the liquid on the adhesion energy of the 3D material. The overall motivation of this system is to allow to independently control the elastic and viscous properties of the matrix and the drops respectively, in opposition to the viscoelastic fluids commonly used as adhesives such as PSA and gels.
Interactions between drops of a molten aluminum-lithium alloy and liquid water. In certain hypothesized nuclear reactor accident scenarios, 1- to g drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys might contact liquid water. Because vigorous steam explosions have occurred when large amounts of molten aluminum-lithium alloys were released into water or other coolants, it becomes important to know whether there will be explosions if smaller amounts of these molten alloys similarly come into contact with water.
Therefore, the authors released drops of molten Al The experiments were performed at local atmospheric pressure 0. The absence of these triggers allowed them to a investigate whether spontaneous initiation of steam explosions would occur with these drops and b study the alloy-water chemical reactions. The drop sizes and melt temperatures were chosen to simulate melt globules that might form during the hypothesized melting of the aluminum-lithium alloy components.
New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors. The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at deg. C is about 2. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized.
The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors. Optical scattering lengths in large liquid -scintillator neutrino detectors. Wurm, M. For liquid -scintillator neutrino detectors of kiloton scale, the transparency of the organic solvent is of central importance.
Results comprise the wavelength range of nm. Based on the present results, LAB seems to be the preferred solvent for a large-volume detector. A liquid-drop model for the heavy-ion fusion below the Coulomb barrier. The enhancement of sub-barrier fusion observed in heavy ion collisions is studied in a liquid-drop model.
It is shown that shape degrees of freedom related to neck formation play an important role in the fusion process, and increase the low energy fusion rates. The model predictions are in a quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, and major discrepancies seem to be found only for those systems where specific nuclear structure effects should also be considered.
Boiling-up of a liquid in a large volume at fast pressure drop. Experiment results on sharp pressure drop in overheated water and carbon dioxide are presented. Pressure fields are investigated upon seal failure of the tube for various initial temperatures varying in the 0. The depth of the liOuid inlet into the metastable region can be compared with maximum permissible superheating of a pure liquid.
The applicability of fluctuation embrion formation for pressure calculation in the initial phase of explosive boiling-up at seal failure of the system is considered. The nature of boiling centers origin is discussed. Liquid-drop model description of heavy ion fusion at sub-barrier energies.
The enhancement of the heavy ion fusion cross section at sub-barrier energies is studied in the liquid-drop model approach. The shape of the system is described by two spheres smoothly connected by a neck, and the kinetic and potential energies are calculated within this parametrization. Underbarrier fusion cross sections for symmetric projectile-target combinations are calculated in the WKB approximation and a comparison with the available data is made.
The agreement is quite satisfactory, except for those systems in which the reaction is strongly affected by the details of the nuclear structure of the collision partners. Collective excitations in neutron-rich nuclei within the model of a Fermi liquid drop. We discuss a new mechanism of splitting of giant multipole resonances GMR in spherical neutron-rich nuclei.
This mechanism is associated with the basic properties of an asymmetric drop of nuclear Fermi liquid. Development of cryogenic installations for large liquid argon neutrino detectors. A proposal for a very large liquid argon 68, kg based neutrino detector is being studied. To validate the design principles and the detector technology, and to gain experience in the development of the cryostats and the cryogenic systems needed for such large experiments, several smaller scale installations will be developed and implemented, at Fermilab and CERN.
The cryogenic systems for these installations will be developed, constructed, installed and commissioned by an international engineering team. These installations shall bring the required cooling power under specific conditions to the experiments for the initial cool-down and the long term operation, and shall also guarantee the correct distribution of the cooling power within the cryostats to ensure a homogeneous temperature distribution within the cryostat itself.
The cryogenic systems shall also include gaseous and liquid phase argon purification devices to be used to reach and maintain the very stringent purity requirements needed for these Faraday forcing of high-temperature levitated liquid metal drops for the measurement of surface tension. In this work, a method for the measurement of surface tension using continuous periodic forcing is presented. To reduce gravitational effects, samples are electrostatically levitated prior to forcing.
The method, called Faraday forcing, is particularly well suited for fluids that require high temperature measurements such as liquid metals where conventional surface tension measurement methods are not possible. It offers distinct advantages over the conventional pulse-decay analysis method when the sample viscosity is high or the levitation feedback control system is noisy. In the current method, levitated drops are continuously translated about a mean position at a small, constant forcing amplitude over a range of frequencies.
The arrival at this resonant condition is a signature that the parametric forcing frequency is equal to the drop 's natural frequency, the latter being a known function of surface tension. A description of the experimental procedure is presented. A proof of concept is given using pure Zr and a Ti The results compare favorably with accepted literature values obtained using the pulse-decay method. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus. Naumann, Robert J. Inventor ; Witherow, William K.
Inventor ; Carter, Daniel C. Inventor ; Bugg, Charles E. Inventor ; Suddath, Fred L. This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid.
In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop , and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended.
The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop. A quasi- molecular shape is assumed in the GLDM, which includes volume-, surface-, and Coulomb-energies, proximity effects, mass asymmetry, and an accurate nuclear radius. The microscopic single particle energies derived from a shell model in an axially deformed Woods- Saxon potential with a quasi-molecular shape.
The shell correction is calculated by the Strutinsky method. The total deformed potential energy of a nucleus can be calculated by the macro-microscopic method as the summation of the liquid-drop energy and the Strutinsky shell correction. It is found that the neck in the quasi-molecular shape is responsible for t Micro-ball lens structure fabrication based on drop on demand printing the liquid mold. Zhu, Xiaoyang, E-mail: zhuxy The micro-ball droplet array on the hydrophobic surface is used as the liquid mold to fabricate the MBLA.
The ultrahigh adhesion force between the micro-ball droplet and the substrate is ascribed to the Wenzel state of the micro-ball droplet, while the replication process with low position error is attributed to the ultrahigh adhesion force between the micro-ball droplet and the substrate and the high viscosity of the micro-ball droplet and polydimethylsiloxane PDMS liquid. The Deep Underground Neutrino experiment will conduct a broad program of physics research by studying a beam of neutrinos from Fermilab, atmospheric neutrinos, neutrinos from potential supernovae, and potential nucleon decay events.
Using principal component analysis PCA with varimax rotation, a six-factor solution 30 items that explained Coefficient alpha ranged from. The results are encouraging. Use of the scale may provide insight into the impact of conflict on patient, staff, and organizational outcomes. Testing and validation of computerized decision support systems.
Systematic, through testing of decision support systems DSSs prior to release to general users is a critical aspect of high quality software design. Omission of this step may lead to the dangerous, and potentially fatal, condition of relying on a system with outputs of uncertain quality.
Thorough testing requires a great deal of effort and is a difficult job because tools necessary to facilitate testing are not well developed. Testing is a job ill-suited to humans because it requires tireless attention to a large number of details. For these reasons, the majority of DSSs available are probably not well tested prior to release. We have successfully implemented a software design and testing plan which has helped us meet our goal of continuously improving the quality of our DSS software prior to release.
While requiring large amounts of effort, we feel that the process of documenting and standardizing our testing methods are important steps toward meeting recognized national and international quality standards. Our testing methodology includes both functional and structural testing and requires input from all levels of development. Our system does not focus solely on meeting design requirements but also addresses the robustness of the system and the completeness of testing.
Facilities and support systems for a day test of a regenerative life support system. A day test is reported of a regenerative life support system which was completed in a space station simulator. The long duration of the test and the fact that it was manned, imposed rigid reliability and safety requirements on the facility.
Where adequate reliability could not be built into essential facility systems, either backup systems or components were provided. Awareness was intensified by: 1 placing signs on every piece of equipment that could affect the test , 2 painting switches on all breaker panels a bright contrasting color, 3 restricting access to the test control area, and 4 informing personnel in the facility other than test personnel of test activities. It is concluded that the basic facility is satisfactory for conducting long-duration manned tests , and it is recommended that all monitor and alarm functions be integrated into a single operation.
The tests included compliance evaluation, preliminary proof loadings, high-strain cyclic testing , and finally residual strength testing of each design see the photograph on the left. Loads were applied with single rollers see the photograph on the right or pressure plates not shown located midspan on each side to minimize the influence of contact stresses on corner deformation measurements. Where rollers alone were used, a more severe structural loading was produced than the corresponding equal-force pressure loading: the maximum transverse shear force existed over the entire length of each side, and the corner bending moments were greater than for a distributed pressure loading.
Failure modes initiating at the corner only provided a qualitative indication of the performance limitations since the stress state was not identical to internal pressure. Configurations were tested at both room and elevated temperatures. Experimental results were used to evaluate analytical prediction tools and finite-element methodologies for future work, and they were essential to provide insight into the deformation at the corners.
The tests also were used to assess fabrication and bonding details for the complicated structures. They will be used to further optimize the design of the support structures for weight performance and the efficacy of corner reinforcement. Scientists and engineers at the MSFC are working together to provide the ISS with systems that are safe, efficient, and cost-effective. In this photograph, the life test area on the left of the MSFC ECLSS test facility is where various subsystems and components are tested to determine how long they can operate without failing and to identify components needing improvement.
Laboratory Module, Destiny. Simulating advanced life support systems to test integrated control approaches. Simulations allow for testing of life support control approaches before hardware is designed and built. Simulations also allow for the safe exploration of alternative control strategies during life support operation.
As such, they are an important component of any life support research program and testbed. It is a discrete-event simulation that is dynamic and stochastic. It simulates all major components of an advanced life support system, including crew with variable ages, weights and genders , biomass production with scalable plantings of ten different crops , water recovery, air revitalization, food processing, solid waste recycling and energy production.
Each component is modeled as a producer of certain resources and a consumer of certain resources. The control system must monitor via sensors and control via actuators the flow of resources throughout the system to provide life support functionality. The simulation is written in an object-oriented paradigm that makes it portable, extensible and reconfigurable.
The psychometric properties of a new, multidimensional measure of test anxiety, the Test Anxiety Measure for College Students TAM-C , were examined in a sample of undergraduate students. Results of confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a six-factor Cognitive Interference, Physiological Hyperarousal, Social Concerns,….
Improved techniques for thermomechanical testing in support of deformation modeling. The feasibility of generating precise thermomechanical deformation data to support constitutive model development was investigated. Here, the requirement is for experimental data that is free from anomalies caused by less than ideal equipment and procedures.
A series of exploratory tests conducted on Hastelloy X showed that generally accepted techniques for strain controlled tests were lacking in at least three areas. The source of these difficulties was identified and improved thermomechanical testing techniques to correct them were developed.
These goals were achieved by developing improved procedures for measuring and controlling thermal gradients and by designing a specimen specifically for thermomechanical testing. In addition, innovative control strategies were developed to correctly proportion and phase the thermal and mechanical components of strain.
Subsequently, the improved techniques were used to generate deformation data for Hastelloy X over the temperature range, to C. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan. A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system.
Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement. PubMed Central. Temperature-sensitive hydrogel polymers are utilized as responsive layers in various applications. Although the polymer's native characteristics have been studied extensively, details concerning its properties during interaction with biorelated structures are lacking. This work investigates the interaction between a thermoresponsive polymer cushion and different lipid membrane capping layers probed by neutron reflectometry.
N-isopropylacrylamide copolymerized with methacroylbenzophenone first supported a lipid bilayer composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerophosphoethanolamine DPPE and subsequently 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine DPPC. Although the same cushion supported each lipid membrane, the polymer hydration profile and thickness were markedly different for DPPE and DPPC systems. Because DPPE and DPPC have different bending rigidities, these results establish that the polymer-membrane interaction is critically mediated by the mechanics of the membrane, providing better insight into cell-hydrogel interactions.
The seismic deformation characeteristics of a pile supported pier was examined with the shake table test , especially focusing on the pier after its deformation during earthquakes. The model based on the similitude of the fully-plastic moment in piles was prepared to confirm the deformation and stress characteristic after reaching the fully-plastic moment. Moreover, assuming transportation of emergency supplies and occurrence of after shock in the post-disaster period, the pile supported pier was loaded with weight after reaching fully-plastic moment and excited with the shaking table.
As the result, it is identified that the displacement of the pile supported pier is comparatively small if bending strength of piles does not decrease after reaching fully-plastic moment due to nonoccourrence of local backling or strain hardening. On-site cell field test support program. Utility sites for data monitoring were reviewed and selected. Each of these sites will be instrumented and its energy requirements monitored and analyzed for one year prior to the selection of 40 Kilowatt fuel cell field test sites.
Analyses in support of the selection of sites for instrumentation shows that many building sectors offered considerable market potential. Natural environment support guidelines for Space Shuttle tests and operations. The present work outlines the general concept as to how natural environment guidelines will be developed for Space Shuttle activities. The following six categories that might need natural environment support are single out: development tests ; preliminary operations and prelaunch; launch to orbit; orbital mission and operations; deorbit, entry, and landing; ferry flights.
An example of detailed event requirements for decisions to launch is given. Development and psychometric testing of the Supportive Supervisory Scale. The development of the items of the scale was based on Winnicott's relationship theory and on focus groups with 26 healthcare aides HCAs and 30 supervisors from six long-term care LTC facilities in Ontario, Canada.
Content validity of the item instrument was established by a panel of experts. A two-factor solution was accepted, which is consistent with the theoretical conceptualization of the instrument. Internal consistency of Factor I was. Discriminant validity was also established. The focus groups revealed that "being available to staff" while "recognizing the HCA as an individual, and taking a moment to get to know them" was essential to feeling supported by their supervisor.
At the core of supportive supervision is the supervisor's ability to develop and maintain positive relationships with each HCA. It is through respecting the uniqueness of each HCA and being reliable that supervisor-HCA relationships can flourish. Supportive leadership in LTC settings is a major contributor to HCAs' job satisfaction and retention and to quality of patient care.
Therefore, a tool developed and tested to measure supervisors' supportive capacities in LTC is primal to evaluate the effectiveness of supervisors in these environments. The object of this work was to identify correlations between performance losses of Pt electrocatalysts on carbon support materials and the chemical and morphological parameters that describe them.
Accelerated stress testing , with an upper potential of 1. The previously estimated blade properties showed consistently higher stiffness, up to 30 percent for the flap bending in the blade inboard root section. Guidance simulation and test support for differential GPS flight experiment. Three separate tasks which supported the test preparation, test operations, and post test analysis of the NASA Ames flight test evaluation of the differential Global Positioning System GPS are presented.
Task 1 consisted of a navigation filter design, coding, and testing to optimally make use of GPS in a differential mode. The filter can be configured to accept inputs from external censors such as an accelerometer and a barometric or radar altimeter. The filter runs in real time onboard a NASA helicopter. It processes raw pseudo and delta range measurements from a single channel sequential GPS receiver. The Kalman filter software interfaces are described in detail, followed by a description of the filter algorithm, including the basic propagation and measurement update equations.
The performance during flight tests is reviewed and discussed. Task 2 describes a refinement performed on the lateral and vertical steering algorithms developed on a previous contract. The refinements include modification of the internal logic to allow more diverse inflight initialization procedures, further data smoothing and compensation for system induced time delays.
Task 3 describes the TAU Corp participation in the analysis of the real time Kalman navigation filter. The performance was compared to that of the Z-set filter in flight and to the laser tracker position data during post test analysis. This analysis allowed a more optimum selection of the parameters of the filter.
Tests of measurement invariance failed to support the application of the "then- test ". The use of then- test retrospective pre- test scores has frequently been proposed as a solution to potential confounding of change scores because of response shift, as it is assumed that then- test and post- test responses are provided from the same perspective.
However, this assumption has not been formally tested using robust quantitative methods. Pre- test , post- test , and then- test data were collected from participants of self-management courses using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire heiQ. Tartakovsky and Neuman  presented a new analytical solution for flow to a partially penetrating well pumping at a constant rate from a compressible unconfined aquifer considering the unsaturated zone.
In their solution three-dimensional, axially symmetric unsaturated flow is described by a linearized version of Richards' equation in which both hydraulic conductivity and water content vary exponentially with incremental capillary pressure head relative to its air entry value, the latter defining the interface between the saturated and unsaturated zones.
The authors used their solution to analyze drawdown data from a pumping test conducted by Moench et al. Their analysis yielded estimates of horizontal and vertical saturated hydraulic conductivities, specific storage, specific yield and k. Recognizing that hydraulic conductivity and water content seldom vary identically with incremental capillary pressure head, as assumed by Tartakovsky and Neuman , we note that k is at best an effective rather than a directly measurable soil parameter.
We therefore ask to what extent does interpretation of a pumping test based on the Tartakovsky-Neuman solution allow estimating aquifer unsaturated parameters as described by more common constitutive water retention and relative hydraulic conductivity models such as those of Brooks and Corey  or van Genuchten  and Mualem [a]? We address this question by showing how may be used to estimate the capillary air entry pressure head k and the parameters of such constitutive models directly, without a need for inverse unsaturated numerical simulations of the kind described by Moench .
To assess the validity of such direct estimates we use maximum. As a member of the Space Suit Assembly Development Engineering Team, I designed and built test equipment systems to support the development of the next generation of advanced space suits. During space suit testing it is critical to supply the subject with two functions: 1 cooling to remove metabolic heat, and 2 breathing air to pressurize the space suit. The objective of my first project was to design, build, and certify an improved Space Suit Cooling System for manned testing in a 1-G environment.
The Space Suit Cooling System is a robust, portable system that supports very high metabolic rates. It has a highly adjustable cool rate and is equipped with digital instrumentation to monitor the flowrate and critical temperatures. It can supply a variable water temperature down to 34 deg. My next project was to design and build a Breathing Air System that was capable of supply facility air to subjects wearing the Z-2 space suit.
The system intakes PSIG breathing air and regulates it to two operating pressures: 4. It can also provide structural capabilities at 1. It has instrumentation to monitor flowrate, as well as inlet and outlet pressures. The system has a series of relief valves to fully protect itself in case of regulator failure. Both projects followed a similar design methodology. The first task was to perform research on existing concepts to develop a sufficient background knowledge.
Then mathematical models were developed to size components and simulate system performance. Next, mechanical and electrical schematics were generated and presented at Design Reviews. After the systems were approved by the suit team, all the hardware components were specified and procured.
The systems were then packaged, fabricated, and thoroughly tested. The next step. Most women with perinatal depression do not receive depression treatment. A multidisciplinary work group of seven perinatal and behavioral health professionals was convened to design, refine, and beta- test PRISM in an obstetric practice.
Iterative feedback and problem solving facilitated development of PRISM components, which include provider training and a toolkit, screening procedures, implementation assistance, and access to immediate psychiatric consultation. Beta testing with 50 patients over two months demonstrated feasibility and suggested that PRISM may improve provider screening rates and self-efficacy to address depression.
On the basis of lessons learned, PRISM will be enhanced to integrate proactive patient engagement and monitoring into obstetric practices. PRISM may help overcome patient-, provider-, and system-level barriers to managing perinatal depression in obstetric settings. Duplicate laboratory test reduction using a clinical decision support tool. Duplicate laboratory tests that are unwarranted increase unnecessary phlebotomy, which contributes to iatrogenic anemia, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased health care costs.
We employed a clinical decision support tool CDST to block unnecessary duplicate test orders during the computerized physician order entry CPOE process. We assessed laboratory cost savings after 2 years and searched for untoward patient events associated with this intervention. There were no untoward effects reported associated with this intervention. These interactions save health care dollars and should also increase patient satisfaction and well-being.
This review examines studies that use technology-based platforms to increase or improve the experience of HST among MSM. Seven published studies and eight funded studies were included in this review. Comprehensive prevention interventions with free HST kit distribution and interventions that provide free HST kits and support the HST process address a greater number of barriers e.
Additional research is needed to determine the efficacy of recent formative HST interventions. Some attributes of a language for property -based testing. Property -based testing is a testing technique that evaluates executions of a program. The method checks that specifications, called properties , hold throughout the execution of the program.
TASpec is a language used to specify these properties. This paper compares some attributes of the language with the specification patterns used for model-checking languages, and then presents some descriptions of properties that can be used to detect common security flaws in programs.
The SSU is described in detail and component level test data is presented. Next, the BCDU's operation and design is given along with component level test data. The Source Subsystem is then presented and early data given to demonstrate an effective subsystem design. Measurement properties of continuous text reading performance tests.
Measurement properties of tests to assess reading acuity or reading performance have not been extensively evaluated. This study aims to provide an overview of the literature on available continuous text reading tests and their measurement properties. Subsequently, information on design and content of reading tests , study design and measurement properties were extracted using consensus-based standards for selection of health measurement instruments.
Quality of studies, reading tests and measurement properties were systematically assessed using pre-specified criteria. All three reading tests scored high on content validity. Reproducibility studies repeated measurements between different testing sessions of the IReST and MNread of commercially available reading tests in different languages were missing. The IReST scored best on inter-language comparison, the MNread scored well in repeatability studies repeated measurements under the same conditions and the Radner showed good reproducibility in studies.
Although in daily practice there are other continuous text reading tests available meeting the criteria of this review, measurement properties were described in scientific studies for only three of them. Of the few available studies, the quality and content of study design and methodology used varied. For testing existing reading tests and the development of new ones, for example in other languages, we make several recommendations, including careful description of patient characteristics, use of objective and subjective lighting levels, good control of working distance, documentation of the number of raters and their training, careful documentation of scoring rules and the use of Bland-Altman analyses or similar for.
Test benches for studying the properties of car tyres. The article describes the design of the measuring systems of test benches used to study the properties of elastic tyres. The bench has two autonomous systems - for testing the braking properties of elastic tyres rolling in a plane parallel way and for testing tyre slip properties. The system for testing braking properties determines experimental characteristics of elastic tyres as the following dependencies: longitudinal response vs time, braking torque vs slip, angular velocity vs slip, and longitudinal response vs slip.
The article presents the diagrams of bench tests of elastic tyres. The experimental results show metrological parameters and functional capabilities of the bench for studying tyre properties in driving and braking modes. The metrological indices of the recorded parameters of the measuring system for studying tyre properties are presented in the table.
Actual waste water, simulating Space Station waste, is generated and processed through the hardware to evaluate the performance of technologies in the flight Water Processor design. The purpose of this paper is to present a newly developed measure of guardian support , the Needs-Based Assessment of Parental Guardian Support NAPS , an empirical evaluation of that measure, and its comparison with another measure of guardian support.
The theoretical model that underlies this measure applies humanistic theory and Maslow's hierarchy of needs to the understanding of guardian support. The NAPS and an existing measure of guardian support were administered during the hospital outpatient visit, and basic information concerning the child and abuse situations were gathered.
The NAPS had robust psychometric properties and was culturally sensitive. Tests of specific hypotheses supported the construct validity of the measure and a conceptualization of guardian support as hierarchical, with four stages of support. The brevity and ease of administration of the NAPS for both the clinician and guardian suggest that it is a viable assessment tool. The strong support for the NAPS' underlying theoretical model suggests that the nonoffending guardians' available resources need to be considered when assessing guardian support.
Means for ultrasonic testing when material properties vary. A device is provided for maintaining constant sensitivity in an ultrasonic testing device, despite varying attenuation due to the properties of the material being tested. The device includes a sensor transducer for transmitting and receiving a test signal and a monitor transducer positioned so as to receive ultrasonic energy transmitted through the material to be tested. The received signal of the monitor transducer is utilized in analyzing data obtained from the sensor transducer.
Astronauts on long-duration lunar missions will need the capability to "high-grade" their samples - to select the highest value samples for transport to Earth - and to leave others on the Moon. Instruments that may be useful for such high-grading are under development.
Instruments are also being developed for possible use on future lunar robotic landers, for lunar field work, and for more sophisticated analyses at a lunar outpost. Packham exiting the chamber Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters Don Henninger interviewed by reporters Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants , Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle , Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham Packham displays a handful of wheat plants Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator Packham retrieves a package from the airlock Packham packs up trash in plastic bag and sends it back through the airlock Packham gets a cup of water and heats it in the microwave Flammability testing conducted in support of Apollo In support of the Apollo 13 investigation of the oxygen tank failure, flame propagation rates were determined for Teflon insulation in cryogenic and ambient temperature oxygen for upward, downward, and zero g burns.
The propagation rates depended heavily on configuration and varied from 4. In addition to the flame propagation rates, tests were conducted to determine if Teflon burning in cryogenic oxygen could ignite metals promoted ignition with which it came in contact. Tests conducted on various metal alloys used in the oxygen tank indicated that most of the alloys could be ignited by burning Teflon in certain configurations.
After the propagation rates and promoted metal ignitions had been evaluated, a test was conducted on a quantity gauge and wire harness used in the oxygen tank to determine if flame propagation to the tank wall was possible.
Propagation of the wire bundle after ignition resulted in a catastrophic failure of the test vessel in the area of the quantity gauge. The WPA removes free gas, organic, and nonorganic constituents before the water goes through a series of multifiltration beds for further purification. Product water quality is monitored primarily through conductivity measurements.
Unacceptable water is sent back through the WPA for reprocessing. Clean water is sent to a storage tank. Johnson Space Center's regenerative life support systems test bed. When completed, the facility will be comprised of two large scale plant growth chambers, each with approximately 10 m exp 2 growing area.
The root zone in each chamber will be configurable for hydroponic or solid state media systems. Research will focus on: 1 in situ resource utilization for CELSS systems, in which simulated lunar soils will be used in selected crop growth studies; 2 integration of biological and physicochemical air and water revitalization systems; 3 effect of atmospheric pressure on system performance; and 4 monitoring and control strategies.
Ground support has always been considered as a challenging issue in all underground operations. In the last two decades, a new polymer based material, Thin Spray-on Liner TSL , has attained a place in the market as an alternative to the current areal ground support systems. Although TSL provides numerous merits and has different application purposes, the knowledge on mechanical properties and performance of this material is still limited.
In laboratory studies, since tensile rupture is the most commonly observed failure mechanism in field applications, researchers have generally studied the tensile testing of TSLs with modification of American Society for Testing and Materials ASTM D standards.
For tensile creep testing , specimen preparation process also follows the ASTM standards. Moreover, molding and die cutting are commonly used specimen preparation techniques. In literature, there is a great variability of test results due to the difference in specimen preparation techniques and practices. In this study, a ductile TSL product was tested in order to investigate the effect of both specimen preparation techniques and specimen dimensions under 7-day curing time.
As a result, ultimate tensile strength, tensile yield strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break values were obtained for 4 different test series. It is concluded that Type IV specimens have higher strength values compared to Type I specimens and moulded specimens have lower results than that of prepared by using die cutter. Moreover, specimens prepared by molding techniques have scattered test results. Type IV specimens prepared by die cutter technique are suggested for preparation of tensile test and Type I specimens prepared by die cutter technique.
By comparing periods of oscillations as measured from an average over the test period versus the period of each oscillation, it was noticed that the frequency of oscillation was shifting significantly throughout the test. This phenomenon was only noticed during compound pendulum swings, and not during bifilar pendulum swings. The frequency shift was only visible upon extensive data analysis of the frequency for each oscillation, and did not appear in averaged frequency data over the test period.
Multiple test articles, test techniques, and hardware setups were used in attempts to eliminate or identify the cause of the frequency shift. Plotting the frequency of oscillation revealed a region of minimal shift that corresponded to a larger amplitude range. This region of minimal shift provided the most accurate results compared to a known test article; however, the amplitudes that produce accurate inertia measurements are amplitudes larger than those generally accepted in mass properties testing.
This paper examines two case studies of the frequency shift, using mass properties testing performed on a dummy test article, and on the XB Blended Wing Body aircraft. Future long duration human exploration missions away from Earth will require closed-loop regenerative life support systems to reduce launch mass, reduce dependency on resupply and increase the level of mission self sufficiency.
Such systems may be based on the integration of biological and physiocochemical processes to produce potable water, breathable atmosphere and nutritious food from metabolic and other mission wastes. Over the period to a series of ground-based tests were conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Johnson Space Center, to evaluate the performance of advanced closed-loop life support technologies with real human metabolic and hygiene loads.
A single crew member spent 15 days within an atmospherically closed chamber containing Atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen levels were maintained by control of the rate of photosynthesis through manipulation of light intensity or the availability of carbon dioxide and included integrated physicochemical systems. Advanced physicochemical life support hardware was used to regenerate the atmosphere and produce potable water from wastewater.
Air revitalization was accomplished by using a molecular sieve and a Sabatier processor for carbon dioxide absorption and reduction, respectively, with oxygen generation performed by water hydrolysis. Using object-oriented analysis techniques to support system testing. Testing of real-time control systems can be greatly facilitated by use of object-oriented and structured analysis modeling techniques.
This report describes a project where behavior, process and information models built for a real-time control system were used to augment and aid traditional system testing. The models were used to simulate system behavior by means of hand execution of the behavior or state model and the associated process data and control flow and information data models. The information model, which uses an extended entity-relationship modeling technique, is used to identify application domain objects and their attributes instance variables.
The behavioral model uses state-transition diagrams to describe the state-dependent behavior of the object. The process model uses a transformation schema to describe the operations performed on or by the object. Together, these models provide a means of analyzing and specifying a system in terms of the static and dynamic properties of the objects which it manipulates.
The various models were used to simultaneously capture knowledge about both the objects in the application domain and the system implementation. Models were constructed, verified against the software as-built and validated through informal reviews with the developer.
These models were then hand-executed. The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, currently under construction. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters.
The LAW glass will be disposed on site. There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the supplemental LAW portion of the tank waste, as well as to examine the volatility of 99Tc during the vitrification process. Removal of 99Tc, followed by off-site disposal has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. A conceptual flow sheets for supplemental LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal will specifically examine removing 99Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization.
In the tank waste, 99Tc is predominantly found in the tank supernate as pertechnetate TcO 4 -. Perrhenate ReO 4 - has been shown to be a good non-radioactive surrogate for pertechnetate in laboratory testing for this ion exchange resin. This revision includes results from testing to determine effective resin operating temperature range.
Many aging composite overwrapped pressure vessels COPVs , being used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASA are currently under evaluation to better quantify their reliability and clarify their likelihood of failure due to stress rupture and age-dependent issues.
To support this effort, a group of Nondestructive Evaluation NDE experts was assembled to provide NDE competence for pretest evaluation of test articles and for application of NDE technology to real-time testing.
Techniques were required to provide assurance that the test article had adequate structural integrity and manufacturing consistency to be considered acceptable for testing and these techniques were successfully applied. Destructive testing is also being accomplished to better understand the physical and chemical property changes associated with progression toward "stress rupture" SR failure, and it is being associated with NDE response, so it can potentially be used to help with life prediction.
Destructive work also includes the evaluation of residual stresses during dissection of the overwrap, laboratory evaluation of specimens extracted from the overwrap to evaluate physical property changes, and quantitative microscopy to inform the theoretical micromechanics. A multi-year effort has been carried out at NASA-JSC to develop an advanced extra-vehicular activity Portable Life Support System PLSS design intended to further the current state of the art by increasing operational flexibility, reducing consumables, and increasing robustness.
Previous efforts have focused on modeling and analyzing the advanced PLSS architecture, as well as developing key enabling technologies. This multi-year effort has culminated in the construction and operation of PLSS 1. PLSS 1. The overall PLSS 1. Supplying oxygen was not one of the specific life support functions because the PLSS 1. Nitrogen was used for the working gas.
Additional test objectives were to confirm PLSS technology development components performance within an integrated test bed, identify unexpected system level interactions, and map the PLSS 1. Successful PLSS 1. Tests of blending and correlation of distillate fuel properties. The development of a fuel test matrix, results from tests of several blends of distillate aircraft fuels, and the use of correlations in formulation determination during a NASA-sponsored program to identify new aircraft fuels are described.
The program was initiated in order to characterize fuel blends which are appropriate for different types of combustors in use and under development. The fuels were required to feature a specified range of properties. Attention is given to fuel volatility, hydrogen content, aromatic content, freezing point, kinematic viscosity, and naphthalene content.
Paraffinic and naphtenic base stocks were employed, using alkyl benzene, naphthene benzenes, and naphthalenes to adjust the blend properties. Categories for the test fuels comprised source-controlled and composition controlled fuels. Test results and compositions of various fuels are provided.
A thin disc-shaped specimen with known mechanical properties is pressed with a small ball until the appearance of cracks in the former. The load - displacement curves are recorded. Computation of the yield strength and fracture energy by the curve obtained and by known formulas shows good convergence with the characteristics obtained by standard testing. Objective To determine the impact of hormones on the biomechanical properties of the vagina and its supportive tissues following surgical menopause in young vs middle aged rats.
Animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks and the biomechanical properties of the vagina and supportive tissues determined. Data was analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance and post-hoc tests. Results OVX induced a rapid decline in the biomechanical properties of pelvic tissues in young but not middle aged rats. Parity did not impact tissue behavior. Conclusions OVX has a differential effect on the tissues of young vs middle aged rats. Although the reliability and validity of the original SVEST have been validated, those for the Korean tool have not been validated.
The study included clinical nurses as participants. Content validity was assessed by seven experts, and test -retest reliability was evaluated by 30 clinicians. Internal consistency and construct validity were assessed via confirmatory factor analysis.
The analyses were performed using SPSS The content validity index value demonstrated validity; item- and scale-level content validity index values were both 0. Test -retest reliability and internal consistency reliability were satisfactory: the intraclass consistent coefficient was 0. The results showed that the Korean version of SVEST demonstrated the extent of second victimhood and support resources in Korean healthcare workers and could aid in the development of support programs and evaluation of their effectiveness.
Users of Integrated Environmental Modeling IEM systems are responsible for defining individual chemicals and their properties , a process that is time-consuming at best and overwhelming at worst, especially for new chemicals with new structures.
A software tool is needed to allo Building and Supporting a Case for Test Use. The fields of language testing and educational and psychological measurement have not, as yet, developed a set of principles and procedures for linking test scores and score-based inferences to test use and the consequences of test use.
Although Messick discusses test use and consequences, his framework provides virtually no guidance on how…. Experimental method for testing diffraction properties of reflection waveguide holograms. Waveguide holograms' diffraction properties include peak wavelength and diffraction efficiency, which play an important role in determining their display performance.
Based on the record and reconstruction theory of reflection waveguide holograms, a novel experimental method for testing diffraction properties is introduced and analyzed in this paper, which uses a plano-convex lens optically contacted to the surface of the substrate plate of the waveguide hologram, so that the diffracted light beam can be easily detected. Then an experiment is implemented. The experimental results are a peak wavelength of It is shown that the tested value corresponds well with the designed value.
Transport processes in partially saturate concrete: Testing and liquid properties. The measurement of transport properties of concrete is considered by many to have the potential to serve as a performance criterion that can be related to concrete durability. However, the sensitivity of transport tests to several parameters combined with the low permeability of concrete complicates the testing.
Gas permeability and diffusivity test methods are attractive due to the ease of testing , their non-destructive nature and their potential to correlate to in-field carbonation of reinforced concrete structures. This work was aimed at investigating the potential of existing gas transport tests as a way to reliably quantify transport properties in concrete.
In this study gas permeability and diffusivity test methods were analyzed comparing their performance in terms of repeatability and variability. The influence of several parameters was investigated such as moisture content, mixture proportions and gas flow.
A closer look to the influence of pressure revealed an anomalous trend of permeability with respect to pressure. An alternative calculation is proposed in an effort to move towards the determination of intrinsic material properties that can serve as an input for service life prediction models.
The impact of deicing salts exposure was also analyzed with respect to their alteration of the degree of saturation as this may affect gas transport in cementitious materials. Limited information were previously available on liquid properties over a wide range of concentrations. To overcome this limitation, this study quantified surface tension, viscosity in presence of deicing salts in a broad concentration range and at different temperatures.
Existing models were applied to predict the change of fluid properties during drying. Vapor desorption isotherms were obtained to investigate the influence of deicing salts presence on the non-linear moisture diffusion coefficient. Semi-empirical models were used to quantify the initiation and the rate of drying using liquid.
As prescribed in Non-destructive testing NDT methods are important alternatives when destructive tests are not feasible to examine the in situ concrete properties without damaging the structure. The rebound hammer test and the ultrasonic pulse velocity test are two popular NDT methods to examine the properties of concrete. The rebound of the hammer depends on the hardness of the test specimen and ultrasonic pulse travelling speed is related to density, uniformity, and homogeneity of the specimen.
Both of these two methods have been adopted to estimate the concrete compressive strength. However, the estimated results can be unreliable. As a result, this research proposes an Artificial Intelligence model using support vector machines SVMs for the estimation. Data from 95 cylinder concrete samples are collected to develop and validate the model.
The results also show that the SVMs model is more accurate than the statistical regression model. Testing techniques for determining static mechanical properties of Pneumatic tires. Fore-aft, lateral, and vertical spring rates of model and full-scale pneumatic tires were evaluated by testing techniques generally employed by industry and various testing groups. The purpose of this experimental program was to investigate what effects the different testing techniques have on the measured values of these important static tire mechanical properties.
The testing techniques included both incremental and continuous loadings applied at various rates over half, full, and repeated cycles. Of the three properties evaluated, the fore-aft stiffness was demonstrated to be the most affected by the different testing techniques used to obtain it. Appreciable differences in the fore-aft spring rates occurred using both the increment- and continuous-loading techniques; however, the most significant effect was attributed to variations in the size of the fore-aft force loop.
The dependence of lateral stiffness values on testing techniques followed the same trends as that for fore-aft stiffness, except to a lesser degree. Vertical stiffness values were found to be nearly independent of testing procedures if the nonlinear portion of the vertical force-deflection curves is avoided. Spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades: Model predictions and experimental tests. Microsaccades are involuntary and very small eye movements during fixation.
Recently, the microsaccade-related neural dynamics have been extensively investigated both in experiments and by constructing neural network models. Experimentally, microsaccades also exhibit many behavioral properties. The behavioral properties resulted from neural responses to microsaccades, however, are not yet understood and are rarely studied theoretically. Linking neural dynamics to behavior is one of the central goals of neuroscience.
In this paper, we provide behavior predictions on spatiotemporal properties of microsaccades according to microsaccade-induced neural dynamics in a cascading network model, which includes both retinal adaptation and short-term depression STD at thalamocortical synapses. We also successfully give experimental tests in the statistical sense. Our results provide the first behavior description of microsaccades based on neural dynamics induced by behaving activity, and so firstly link neural dynamics to behavior of microsaccades.
These results indicate strongly that the cascading adaptations play an important role in the study of microsaccades. Our work may be useful for further investigations of the microsaccadic behavioral properties and of the underlying neural dynamical mechanisms responsible for the behavioral properties.
Have test data been collected, recorded, and presented in accordance. Comment : Comment : 5. Were the test results Were the test results compromised in any way due to data collection. Classroom Tips. Standardized testing time often creates a nervous atmosphere in classrooms. In past years one of the authors joined a chorus of teachers singing her own woes about the infamous test.
She increased her daily caffeine intake, lost sleep, and became a nervous, crazed teacher who had turned her classroom into a test prep center. Her aha moment came…. However, interviews with administrators and teachers suggest that Minnesota's tests , which are representative of the current generation of state-mandated tests , fail to provide useful information to administrators…. An expanded plug method was developed earlier for determining the tensile properties of irradiated fuel cladding.
This method tests fuel rod cladding ductility by utilizing an expandable plug to radially stretch a small ring of irradiated cladding material. The circumferential or hoop strain is determined from the measured diametrical expansion of the ring. A developed procedure is used to convert the load circumferential strain data from the ring tests into material pseudo-stress-strain curves, from which material properties of the cladding can be extracted.
Moreover, highly nonuniform stress and strain distribution in the deformed clad gage section and significant compressive stresses, induced by bending deformation due to clad bulging effect, will further result in highly nonconservative estimates of the mechanical properties for both strength and ductility of the tested clad.
To overcome the aforementioned deficiencies associated with the current expansion plug test , systematic studies have been conducted. By optimizing the specific geometry designs, selecting the appropriate material for the expansion plug, and adding new components into the testing system, a modified expansion plug testing protocol has been developed. A general procedure was also developed to determine the hoop stress in the tested ring specimen.
The generated stress-strain curve agrees well with the associated tensile test data in both elastic and plastic deformation regions. MSFC installed the flight desiccant beds into the existing Exploration Test Chamber E-chamber using a suite of instrumentation not available on orbit to investigate the orbital performance of the desiccant beds. Test objectives, facility design and test results are presented. The Apollo Soyuz Test Project ASTP Weights and Mass Properties Operational Management System was established to assure a timely and authoritative method of acquiring, controlling, generating, and disseminating an official set of vehicle weights and mass properties data.
This paper provides an overview of the system and its interaction with the various aspects of vehicle and component design, mission planning, hardware and software simulations and verification, and real-time mission support activities. The effect of vehicle configuration, design maturity, and consumables updates is discussed in the context of weight control.
With the rapid growth of computer and mobile technology, it is a challenge to integrate computer based test CBT with mobile learning m-learning especially for formative assessment and self-assessment. In terms of self-assessment, computer adaptive test CAT is a proper way to enable students to evaluate themselves.
In CAT, students are…. Testing and evaluation of sign support with cluster attachments. Two full-scale crash tests were conducted on the Louisiana two-post, inclined, slip-base sign assembly with cluster sign attachment. These two tests were performed and evaluated in accordance with guidelines under NCHRP Report and standards estab This mesh consists of hexahedral, pyramidal, and tetrahedral cell types. Close-up view of primary tip. CFD model of an ethylene pyrolysis furnace.
There are six burners shown in each row at the bottom of the furnace, and the tubes are approximately 35 feet long. The endwalls are not shown in this image. Geometry of a xylene reboiler. This view shows half sliced vertically of the furnace. Only three of the six burners are shown at the bottom of the image. This surface is colored according to its temperature o F Exterior geometry of the furnace is included in the model. The surface mesh is also shown.
Burner geometry. The acid swirl vanes are shown in red; the air swirl vanes are shown in green; and the start-up fuel tip is shown in purple. Oxygen mass fractions viewed from above the furnace. The contour scale is logarithmic. The mass fractions are contoured on the mid-plane of the furnace.
H 2 S mole fractions contoured on the midplane of the furnace. Stoichiometric iso-surface colored by temperature o C for the initial burner design. Midplane of geometry colored by temperature o C. This view shows the burner quarl and the mixing regions of acid. Geometric information describing the thermal oxidizer examined during this study.
Two distinct combustion zones are illustrated, with an exit temperature of about K o F. These predictions depict the CO formation and oxidation zones common to most combustion processes. The predicted maximum Cl 2 concentration, nearly ppmv, occurs in the cooler reactor regions, while an exit Cl 2 concentration of about ppmv is predicted. Re-circulation region in the eductor throat. Re-circulation zone starting to occur in eductor throat. Re-circulation zone developing in eductor throat.
Contours of stream function with increasing backpressure. Fire tetrahedron. Butterworth—Heinemann, Woburn, MA, Trapped steam in a dead-end that can freeze and cause pipe failure. CO detector: a permanent, b portable. Flarestack explosion due to improper purging. Courtesy of T. Plant Disasters, 4th ed. Vapor pressures for light hydrocarbons. Extreme Cond. Ethylene oxide plant explosion caused by autoignition. Process Plant Disasters, 4th ed.
Sanders, Chemical Process Safety:. Graph of sustainable combustion for methane. Typical raw gas burner tips. Typical gas fuel capacity curve. Typical liquid fuel capacity curve. Typical throat of a raw gas burner. Ledge in the burner tile.
Regen tile and swirler. Typical conventional raw gas burner. Typical premix gas burner. Typical radiant wall burner. Programmable logic controller. Touch screen. Simple analog loop. Feedforward loop. Double-block-and-bleed system. Failsafe input to programmable logic controller. Shutdown string. Typical pipe rack. Inside the control panel. Pneumatic control valve.
Control valve characteristics. Thermowell and thermocouple. Velocity thermocouple. Pressure transmitter left and pressure gauge right. Mechanically linked parallel positioning. Electronically linked parallel positioning. A variation of parallel positioning. The required shape of the air valve characterizer.
Fully metered control scheme. Fully metered control scheme with cross limiting. O2 trim of air setpoint. Analog controller with manual reset. Analog controller with automatic reset. Contrast of classical experimentation and SED methods. NOx contours for furnace temperature and oxygen concentration based on Equation A fuel-staged burner.
Municipal solid waste boiler using ammonia injection to control NOx. Method of steepest ascent. Mixture factors, a transformation, and a combined mixture-factorial. Flowchart showing a general sequential experimental strategy. Test furnace for simulation of terrace wall reformers.
Test fuel storage tanks. Forced-draft air preheater. Ellipsoidal radiometer schematic. Heater cutout and burner bolt circle on a new heater. Warped steel on the shell of a heater. Burner improperly installed at an angle due to a warped shell. Donut ring for leveling burner mounting onto the warped shell of a heater. Typical burner drawing. Burner mounted on the side of a heater. Burner mounted on the top of heater. Burner mounted in a common plenum. Burner in a plenum box mounted to a heater.
Piping improperly loaded on the burner inlet. Picture of a burner tile showing multiple tile pieces. Sketch showing a round tile measured in 3 different diameters. Sketch showing a square tile measured at different lengths and widths. Oil tip in combination burner showing oil tip locations. Welding rods in an oil tip. VYD burner gas tip in a diffuser with a pilot. VYD drawing showing the diffuser cone and the pilot tip. Example of an air register. Typical fuel gas piping system. Typical heavy fuel oil piping system.
Typical light fuel oil piping system. A pat gas tip. Example oil gun atomizer. Catatlyst deposit within an oil burner tile. Typical diffuser cone. Typical spin diffuser. Example of a damaged stabilizer. Example of a damaged pilot tip. New ST-1S pilot tip without an electronic ignitor. New ST-1SE pilot with an electronic ignitor. Typical draft measurement points. Excess air indication by oxygen content.
Location for measuring excess oxygen. Oxygen analyzer. Cost of operating with higher excess oxygen levels natural gas. Cost of operating with higher excess oxygen levels 6 oil. Fuel gas pressure measurement. Graph of fuel pressure vs.
Viscosity vs temperature for a range of hydrocarbons. Air control device schematic. Picture of air control device. Primary air door. Burner ignition ledge. Gas tips. Oil tips. Logic diagram for tuning a natural draft heater. Logic diagram for tuning a balanced draft heater. Broken burner tile. Dark line or black streaks on hot refractory surface indicating air leaks. Coke deposit causes tube thinning.
Damaged diffuser cone. Effect of excess O 2 on NOx in raw gas burners. Effect of combustion air temperature on NOx. Effect of bound nitrogen in the liquid fuel on NOx. Effect of burner model on NOx. Staged air burner. Staged fuel burner. Ultra low NOx burner. Typical plant schematic. Cogeneration at Teesside, England. Louis, MO. Courtesy of Ms. Martha Butala, Dabhol Power Company,. Bombay, India, as published in Power Magazine.
Typical location of duct burners in an HRSG. Courtesy of Deltak, Minneapolis, MN. Fluidized bed startup duct burner. An inline burner. Linear burner elements. Approximate requirement for augmenting air. Duct burner arrangement. Physical model of burner. Drilled pipe duct burner. Low emission duct burner. Effect of conditions on CO formation. Typical main oil fuel train: single element. Typical main oil fuel train: multiple elements.
Typical pilot oil train: single element. Typical pilot oil train: multiple elements. Typical utility boilers. Typical single-burner industrial boiler. Courtesy of North Carolina Baptist Hospital. Swirl burner. A typical low-NOx burner, venturi-style. A typical low-NOx burner, a venturi-style second example. The effects of boiler design on NOx.
The NOx of various boilers included in the database on oil and gas, respectively. NOx generation for natural gas and No. NOx vs. Relative NOx vs. Effect of furnace cleanliness on NOx emissions. Effect of air in-leakage on the burner performance. A scaled, physical, aerodynamic simulation model. Relative NOx concentration vs. NOx reduction vs. Full load NOx reduction data. Data comparing single and three-stage gas combustion. Schematic for typical low NOx burner. Combustion low NOx burner.
An ultra-low emissions burner. Outer sleeve contains a second set of gas injector vanes attached to an outer gas reservoir. The ultra-low emissions burner can also be used on two-burner applications where NFPA guidelines are being. Multiple ZTOF installation in an ethylene plant. API radiation geometry.
Comparison of stack height and relative cost for various radiation calculation methods. Effectiveness of steam in smoke suppression. Effectiveness of air in smoke suppression. Perimeter:area ratio as a function of tip size. Courtesy of Shell Canada Ltd. Multi-point LRGO system with a radiation fence. Fundamental pilot parts. SoundProof acoustic pilot monitor. Cyclone separator. Schematic of a vertical liquid seal. Various seal head designs. Airrestor T M velocity-type purge reduction seal.
Schematic of a ZTOF. Demountable derrick. Flare support structure selection guide. Steam control valve station. Staging control valve assembly. Loop seal. Purge control station. Geometry for dispersion calculations. Typical natural-draft burner. Typical medium pressure drop burner. Typical high pressure drop burner. Typical horizontal system with a preheat exchanger. Watertube boiler. Firetube boiler. Typical all-welded shell-and-tube heat exchanger.
Regenerative preheat exchanger. Direct spray contact quench. Submerged quench. Adjustable-plug venturi quench. Dry electrostatic precipitator. Horizontal venturi scrubber. Wet electrostatic precipitator. Simple packed column. Two-stage acid gas removal system. Three-stage NOx reduction process. Two-stage NOx reduction process.
Selective noncatalytic reduction system. Simple thermal oxidizer. Thermal oxidizer system generating steam. Heat recovery thermal oxidation system. Bypass recuperative system. Chlorine reaction equilibrium vs. Molten salt system. Online cleaning with soot blowers. Three-stage NOx system with packed column scrubber. About the Editor. He previously worked for 13 years at Air Products and Chemi- cals, Inc.
He has a Ph. He has taught public courses on this topic for many years, publishing extensive notes. He has an M. He has a B. Lawrence D. He holds four U. I-Ping Chung, Ph. She has authored 14 publications and has two patents. Michael G. He has co-authored a number of papers and presentations covering combustion, combustion equipment, and combustion-generated emissions, and is co-holder of several combustion-related patents. Joseph Colannino, P. Terry worked pre- viously for the John Zink Company as a Combustion Test Engineer, focusing on product testing, burner development, and combustion safety.
For many years, he has conducted company training classes for Control Engineers and Technicians. Karl Graham, Ph. He has worked with burners for utility and industrial boiler applications for seven years and has a Masters of Science in Mechanical Engineering. He has authored eight publications and holds three patents.
Michael Henneke, Ph. He holds a Ph. Jaiwant D. Jay has an M. He has authored several technical articles and papers over the years, and has several patents pending. He graduated from the University of Tulsa in and holds a B. Michael Lorra, Ph. Previous to that, he worked at Gaswaerme Institut, Essen, Germany, e. He gained experience in NO x reduction techniques, especially in reburn- ing technology.
His specialty is combustion of all types of. Melton has been a Registered Professional Engineer for more than 20 years. Robert E. Schwartz, P. Schwartz has been granted 50 U. Prem C. Singh, Ph. He has authored more than 50 publications and is a contrib- utor to a book on coal technology published by Delft Uni- versity of Technology. Joseph D. Smith, Ph.
He has authored 27 peer-reviewed publications, 16 invited lectures, 19 conference papers, two patents, and has organized and directed three special symposia. Stephen L. He has 32 years of. Lev Tsirulnikov, Ph. Richard T. Waibel, Ph. He has authored over 70 technical papers, publications, and presentations. He has authored three publications and is a licensed professional mechanical engineer in California. Roger H. Roger has a B. Roger is a member of the Tulsa Engi- neering Society.
Table of Contents. Chapter 1: Introduction. Chapter 2: Fundamentals. Joseph Colannino and Charles E. Chapter 3: Heat Transfer. Jayakaran, Robert Hayes, and Charles E. Chapter 4: Fundamentals of Fluid Dynamics. Berg, Wes Bussman, and Michael Henneke. Chapter 5: Fuels. Chapter 6: Pollutant Emissions. Chapter 7: Noise. Wes Bussman and Jaiwant D. Chapter 8: Mathematical Modeling of Combustion Systems. Michael Henneke, Joseph D. Smith, Michael Lorra, and Jaiwant D.
Chapter Combustion Safety. Terry Dark and Charles E. Chapter Burner Design. Waibel and Michael Claxton. Chapter Combustion Controls. Joe Gifford and Jim Heinlein. Chapter Experimental Design for Combustion Equipment. Joseph Colannino. Chapter Burner Testing. Chapter Installation and Maintenance.
Witte and Eugene A. Chapter 17 Troubleshooting. Chapter Duct Burners. Peter F. Barry and Stephen L. Chapter Boiler Burners. Chapter 20 Flares. Chapter Thermal Oxidizers. Paul Melton and Karl Graham. Appendix A: Physical Properties of Materials. Appendix B: Properties of Gases and Liquids. Appendix C: Common Conversions. Fred Koch. John Zink. The early decades of the twentieth century saw the birth and growth of the petroleum industry in Oklahoma.
Along with oil, enough natural gas was found to make its gathering and sale a viable business as well. It was there that John Steele Zink, after completing his studies at the University of Oklahoma in , went to work as a chemist. Seeing the problems with existing burners, Zink responded by creating one that needed less excess air and produced a.
A superior burner for that era, it was technically a premix burner with partial primary air and partial draft-induced secondary air. Learn more about Scribd Membership Home. Read free for days Sign In. Much more than documents. Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers. Start Free Trial Cancel anytime. Uploaded by Baher Elsheikh.
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