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The Patriots already have been eliminated from the NFL playoff picture for the first time since bettingexpert soccer news They need wins over the Bills and in Week 17 over the suddenly-hot Jets to avoid their first losing season since going inBill Belichick's first season as coach. Kickoff is set for p. Buffalo is a 7. Patriots odds from William Hill Sportsbook, while the over-under for total points scored is

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Betting on sports in pdf

A number of private companies, including Littlewoods and Vernons, operate football pools in the UK. Football pool operators take entries over the Internet. Sports Betting in the United StatesCurrently, betting on individual sports events is only legal in the state of Nevada in the United States. Casinos in Atlantic City, New Jersey, are not permitted to operate sports books.

Sports books in Nevada offer points spread and fixed-odds betting on all types of professional and amateur sporting events. The standard bet on a sporting event in Nevada follows a "wager 11 to win 10" format where a bettor must risk US-Dollars to win US-Dollars. Anecdotal evidence suggests that quite a bit of illegal sports betting takes place in the US.

Strumpf analysed the behaviour of several illegal sports book-makers in New York City 7. Sports Action tickets could be purchased at Oregon Lottery outlets. Players could pick against the spread, on totals, or on other special events like the number of sacks or fumbles in a football game. A minimum of three games or special events had to be selected on each ticket, and a maximum of 14 could be selected. If there was no winner in a category 3 picks, 4 picks, et cetera , the dollars bet rolled over to the next week's game.

Bettors select five drivers participating in each week's NASCAR race and winners are determined by the number of points earned by the five drivers selected. Match Fixing, Gambling and Professional SportsProfessional sports leagues are unique business entities. As Neale pointed out, sports leagues rely on competition to make their product interesting 8. One team cannot produce a successful product alone -it must have another team, an opponent, for the product to manifest itself.

The product is the uncertainty of game outcome which in turn affect league standings -a cumulative total of individual games. The uncertainty of game outcome is the core of the sports product 9 and has resulted in the treatment of sports leagues as monopolies This monopoly status, according to sports leagues, is "necessary to bring about the 'equalization of playing strengths among teams' and to maintain public confidence in the honesty of the games" A loss in public confidence about the integrity of games can depreciate the "brandname capital of the firm" 12 as well as the legitimacy and reputation of the league.

The biggest direct threat to the integrity of games and the legitimacy and reputation of leagues are match fixing and point shaving. The early history of professional baseball in North America illustrates the evolution of professional sports' position on the consequences of match fixing.

Soebbing describes the prevalence of gambling in early professional baseball In the early years, betting and match fixing were relatively common. The biggest reason was low player salaries. A sports bettor could offer a relatively small sum of money to a player in exchange for fixing the outcome. The bettor would then make money from the bet, and the player would earn enough 8 See Neale Professionalization, in the form of regular salaries for players, arose in the s and while it helped to mitigate match fixing, salaries still were not high enough to completely discourage players from throwing games.

The event that altered the landscape of baseball was the "Black Sox" scandal. The "Black Sox" scandal refers to a group of eight Chicago White Sox baseball players who took money from sports bettors in exchange for throwing the World Series, Major League Baseball's championship series. The consequence for the eight players was a ban for life by commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis.

The penalty given to the eight baseball players "was taken not only to punish the misdeeds, but also to deter future misconduct of the same or similar type" There have been other instances of professional athletes throwing games but with the rise of professional salaries in addition to the threat of a lifetime ban, these instances are becoming less prominent.

Today, the large salaries earned by professional athletes deters most throwing or fixing of games. However, two groups remain vulnerable to match fixing: unpaid or relatively low-paid, low-profile athletes and referees. Amateur athletes, particularly those playing college athletics in United States, resemble early professional athletes in that they are not well compensated. In fact, college athletes only "earn" the value of their scholarship and room and board expenses.

Research estimates the marginal revenue product of a major college football or basketball player at close to a million dollars a year for the university that the athlete attends Research examining point shaving -a player performing in a way that leads the team to lose by less than the point spread of a game -has shown that this exists in college basketball Examples of low profile athletes fixing matches can be found in professional tennis.

High profile tennis players such as Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal earn salaries comparable to professional athletes in major team sports. However, lower ranked professional tennis players are susceptible to match fixing due to not only their low earnings but also because of the individual nature of the sport. In , the internet gambling company Betfair alerted the WTA about highly suspect betting volume on a tennis match that paired a ranked player with an unranked player. Robson reported that the situation "constitutes one of the most dire threats tennis has faced in the post professional era" Since then, professional tennis has been on high alert for potential matches that have been fixed.

The second group that can be susceptible to match fixing are referees. Similar to lower ranked tennis players and US college athletes, referee wages are low. In addition, referees, no matter the sport, can single-handedly affect the outcome of matches. Recently, two major cases of referees being found guilty of match fixing have occurred. The first was in in the German Bundesliga. In that year, a group of referees expressed concern that another referee in the second division made calls that were deliberately determining the outcome of the match.

An investigation determined that the referee was fixing matches for a group of Croatian bettors with ties to organized crime One of the games in question was a playoff game. A letter filed in court by Donaghy's attorney said that "The N. As a result, the NBA made changes to many policies including the releasing of the names of officials working games as well as the rules governing gambling by officials Match fixing or the potential for match fixing has existed for as long as sports have been played.

The increases in player salaries and the professionalization of sport decreased the incentive to fix matches in some leagues. However, problems still exist in leagues with a wide disparity in wages as well as with referees, who earn much less than players. Gambling as a Benefit to SportMatch fixing and point shaving clearly represent threats to sports leagues. As stated earlier, leagues take this matter very seriously and attempt to ensure that matches played have maximum uncertainty of outcome.

However, sports gambling and the people who participate in the betting market are important stakeholders for sports leagues. Without an opportunity to gamble on sports, some forms of sports may not exist. Even sports that would exist without betting have been influenced in some way by the betting market. By increasing consumption, the teams and leagues receive additional revenues from revenue streams such as media contracts and sponsorship agreements.

In some sports, the bookmakers and sports leagues have formed explicit agreements. Another positive outcome of sports betting is sports betting markets can detect any abnormal betting in matches, indicating that some type of match fixing may be occurring. For example, consider the match-fixing problems in professional tennis discussed above. Without a sports betting market and collaboration between sports bookmakers and sports leagues, the detection of match fixing in professional tennis might not have occurred.

Once abnormal betting volume appears, bookmakers or gambling websites, such as Betfair, can notify the appropriate leagues. This occurred for the tennis match-fixing scandal, and is clearly in the best interest of both the bookmaker and the league.

The bookmaker can maximize the number of people who bet on a particular event and generate the highest profit while the league can increase consumption by offering the most uncertain outcome it can to maintain the legitimacy of the league in the eyes of its stakeholders. In both the US and the EU, sports bettors will soon see expanded opportunities to place bets on sport. In order to get some insight into the potential impact of these expanded sport betting opportunities in the US and the EU, we analyse the characteristics of sports bettors in Canada and the UK using data from two recently conducted surveys of gambling behaviour from each country.

These surveys contain relatively similar questions about sports betting as well as questions about the economic and demographic characteristics of respondents. This survey included a random sample of all Canadians over the age of These data were collected through a random digit dial RDD telephone survey.

The survey was conducted from May to December Over 36, households participated in the survey. These data were collected during a face-to-face interview lasting 35 minutes on average. Just over 26, households participated in the survey. In addition to questions on gambling, this survey contained detailed questions on sport participation and participation in cultural activities like attending concerts, museums, and historical sites.

Both surveys contained questions about participation in sports betting. Although the types of questions differed, the key point is that all three surveys allow us to identify people who have bet on sporting events in the past. In addition, residents of all three countries have easy access to sports betting opportunities. In Canada, sports betting games are offered by monopoly lottery companies that operate a large number of retail outlets and advertise heavily on TV and radio, and in print media.

In the UK, private bookmakers operate thousands of betting shops all over the country. In addition, bookmakers and foot-ball pool operators take bets and entries over the Internet. Access to legal sports betting opportunities should not be a problem for potential sports bettors in these three countries.

Table 1 summarizes the estimated participation rates in sports betting markets, and frequency of sports betting in the three countries. The UK survey contained questions about sports betting, including fixed-odds betting on events like football matches and participation in football pools, in the last week and the last year. The Canadian survey asked questions about participation in Sport Select, the sports betting game operated by lottery operators across Canada over the past year.

The estimated participation rates in sports betting markets are similar in Canada and the UK. The effective price of making a bet on a sporting event also plays a role in determining participation rates in sports betting markets. In the UK, a bettor can place a fixed-odds bet on an individual football match, or other sporting event, with any one of the numerous private book makers operating in that market.

The UK is the only market where a bet can be placed on an individual game or match. In Canada, a bettor must bet on a minimum of two sporting events. The effective cost of a bet also differs due to takeout and overround in each market. This difference in cost does not appear to affect the sports betting market participation rate in Canada, suggesting that sports bettors are insensitive to the effective price.

The Canadian survey also asked questions about the frequency of participation among participants. The bottom panel of Table 1 summarizes these responses for sports bettors. In Canada about half of the sports bettors bet at least monthly and half participate infrequently. Infrequent participants only bet on sports occasionally, or may have only bet on sports on a handful of occasions.

Many of these individuals would not report betting on sports in the last year because of the sporadic nature of their participation. But infrequent participants would answer yes if asked if they had ever bet on sports, even if they only be on sports one time years ago.

Characteristics of Sports BettorsBoth surveys contain detailed demographic and socioeconomic information about respondents. Table 2 summarizes some of the characteristics of sports bettors in these two countries. Canadian sports bettors tended to be younger and English sports bettors older. The income variables were household income in both cases, and the reported figures have been converted to US-Dollars using the Purchasing Power Parity exchange rate estimates published by the OECD.

Canadian sports bettors had a higher income in comparison to sports bettors in the UK. The estimated average household income of sports bettors in the UK is roughly equal to the median household income in the UK; the estimated average household income of Canadian sports bettors is well above the median household income in Canada.

Sports bettors in both countries tend to be male and employed. They also tend to be not single. The other martial status categories include married, cohabiting, divorced and widowed. The level of education of sports bettors varies widely across the three countries. Conditional Analysis of Sports Betting Market ParticipationThe unconditional statistics discussed above provide important information about the characteristics of sports bettors in Canada and the UK.

However, a conditional analysis of the factors that explain observed variation in sports betting market participation can also uncover important features about consumer behaviour in these markets. Our conditional analysis of consumer participation in sports betting markets is based on a probit model.

Define an indicator variable Y i that is equal to one if individual i is a sports bettor and equal to zero if individual i is not a sports bettor. Table 3 contains the marginal effects implied by the parameter estimates from Equation 2 and the P-values for a two-tailed t-test of significance on these parameters, and basic summary statistics from probit models estimated using data from the three surveys described above.

This set of explanatory variables has been used to explain participation in gambling markets in a number of previous studies. First, males are more likely to bet on sports than females. The marginal effect is similar in the two countries. The evidence clearly suggests that men are more likely to bet on sports than women.

Second, the likelihood that an individual bets on sports falls with age in both countries. Alternate probit models that included age squared were estimated in order to determine if the relationship between betting on sports and age was non-linear. The estimated parameters on the age squared variables were not statistically significant. Third, the likelihood that an individual bets on sports increases with income.

Although the marginal effect is not large, this suggests that sports bettors tend to have somewhat higher incomes than people who do not bet on sports. Marital status, employment status, and household size are not strongly associated with the tendency of individuals to bet on sports.

The relationship between education and sports betting is mixed. In the UK, individuals who did not attend college are more likely to bet on sports, while the level of education is not associated with the likelihood that an individual bets on sports in Canada.

The general picture that emerges from the conditional analysis of participation in sports betting markets in Canada and the UK is that sports bettors tend to be younger males with relatively high income. These results hold in two countries with legal and easy access to sports betting opportunities. The specific types of sports betting available differ as well, with more sports betting options available in the UK and fewer in Canada. DiscussionWe motivated this paper with two types of proposed changes in the availability of sports betting opportunities: the creation of new sports betting opportunities where none previously existed and the elimination of all sports betting opportunities that have taken place recently in the US; and the proposed expansion of existing sports betting opportunities beyond the current system of state-sponsored monopoly sports betting currently in place in many EU countries.

In both cases, the welfare of sports bettors and government revenues generated from implicit or explicit taxation of sports betting will be affected by these changes in betting opportunities. Based on our analysis of the characteristics of sports bettors, annual participation in sports betting markets is low. Although lifetime participation may be high, casual gamblers appear to bet on sports infrequently in the UK and Canada. In both countries, participants were largely male, and the conditional analysis of participation indicates that participation declines with age.

The average sports bettor in both countries had household income at or above the median household income, and the conditional analy-sis of participation indicates that participation increases with income. Thus, the typical sports bettor is a young male with relatively high income. Although the annual participation rates in Canada and the UK are small, they are not zero.

People in these three countries are interested in betting on sports, and the US is quite similar to Canada and the UK in many respects. Crushing It! Reboot Your Life. Your Future Depends on It. Customer Experience 3. Do It! Get Rich Click! New Sales. Run Fast. Cook Fast. Mullen, Jr. Sports Betting to Win: The 10 keys to disciplined and profitable betting by Steve Ward Synopsis: Thinking, and betting, like the prosMost people in sports betting are looking at things the wrong way.

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Since the ultimate cost of sports betting regulation falls on bettors, we examine the characteristics of sports bettors in two countries, Canada and the UK, where sport betting is legal and widely available. We focus on these two countries because surveys of sports bettors have recently been conducted there, we have access to these surveys, and the questions asked in these surveys are relatively comparable.

This allows us to develop evidence about sports bettors in these two countries and compare the characteristics of sports bettors across the countries. We also discuss the current availability of sports betting in the US and the EU and develop some evidence about the characteristics of US sports bettors. Improved understanding of the characteristics of sports bettors will help policy makers understand the likely consequences of changes in existing sports betting regulations and enhance understanding of the costs and benefits of existing sports betting regulations.

The Availability of Legal Sports BettingThe availability of sports betting in any economy depends on both the regulations put in place by the government and the willingness of some individuals to violate these regulations. Simmons provides a thorough analysis of the factors that influence the amount of regulation placed on gambling opportunities. He further stresses the inherent tension between consumers who view gambling as entertainment and governments who view state-sponsored mo-nopoly gambling industries as an important source of revenue as an important determinant of the amount of gambling available in an economy.

The anti-gambling group contains individuals and organizations like churches that dislike gambling for a number of reasons. In the case of sports betting, this group can also contain professional and amateur sports organizations like the NCAA. The gambling regulations that emerge from this model are a function of the relative effort that the two groups place on lobbying. Simmons points out that this model cannot be applied to settings where significant gambling opportunities already exist 4.

Forrest and Simmons thoroughly analyse the economic and public policy context of sports betting. They document the rapid growth in sports betting and discuss the potential for this increase to generate revenues for both governments and sports organizations. They emphasize the symbiotic nature of the relationship between sport and sports betting and point out the importance of complementarities between sport spectating and sports betting as well as the tensions generated by this symbiotic relationship.

All of the factors described above are at work to some extent in the three sports betting markets we examine in this paper. Clearly, the sports betting market in the US and the EU are in states of transition, with important increases and decreases in sports betting opportunities occurring frequently in both countries. Below, we describe the sports betting opportunities that exist 2 See Simmons in the two countries we have detailed data on sports betting market participation for, Canada and the UK, and also describe the current sports betting opportunities in the US and the EU.

Sports Betting in CanadaCanadians can bet on sporting events through a group of lottery-based games referred to collectively as Sports Select. Sports Select includes a number of similar sports betting lottery games offered by groups of Canadian provinces.

In some provinces in Western Canada, Point Spread, a lottery-based game featuring bets against point spreads is also offered. All of these sports lottery tickets can be purchased at lottery outlets across Canada. In some provinces, Sports Select tickets can be purchased on the Internet.

The Sports Line games, with the exception of Point Spread, are all based on fixedodds bets on outcomes and totals in professional and amateur sporting events, including games in the major North American sports leagues, US college football and basketball games, and Professional Golfers Association PGA tour tournaments.

The Sports Select games are parlay games where bettors must pick the outcome of between two and twelve sports events. Payouts in Sports Select are not pari-mutuel. Instead, the lottery corporations make profits based on overround, the amount by which the win probabilities implied by the fixed odds offered on specific outcomes exceed The overround on Sports Select bets varies depending on the number of events selected.

Payouts are capped at 2,, US-Dollars per card no matter how large the odds on the selected events. Bookmaking is a legal, regulated industry in the UK and prominent private bookmakers like Ladbrokes and Betfred operate hundreds of betting shops across the UK where bettors can place fixed-odds bets on sporting events. Fixed-odds sports betting in the UK is not pari-mutuel and does not involve any takeout; UK bookmakers earn profits by setting betting odds such that an equal amount wagered on each possible outcome a win, loss or tie in football games or a win or a loss in other sporting events would result in a loss to the bettor.

UK bookmakers also take bets on sporting events over the internet. Football pool betting, a form of sports betting based on correctly forecasting the outcome in a number of football games, is also legal and very popular in the UK. A number of private companies, including Littlewoods and Vernons, operate football pools in the UK. Football pool operators take entries over the Internet. Sports Betting in the United StatesCurrently, betting on individual sports events is only legal in the state of Nevada in the United States.

Casinos in Atlantic City, New Jersey, are not permitted to operate sports books. Sports books in Nevada offer points spread and fixed-odds betting on all types of professional and amateur sporting events. The standard bet on a sporting event in Nevada follows a "wager 11 to win 10" format where a bettor must risk US-Dollars to win US-Dollars. Anecdotal evidence suggests that quite a bit of illegal sports betting takes place in the US.

Strumpf analysed the behaviour of several illegal sports book-makers in New York City 7. Sports Action tickets could be purchased at Oregon Lottery outlets. Players could pick against the spread, on totals, or on other special events like the number of sacks or fumbles in a football game. A minimum of three games or special events had to be selected on each ticket, and a maximum of 14 could be selected. If there was no winner in a category 3 picks, 4 picks, et cetera , the dollars bet rolled over to the next week's game.

Bettors select five drivers participating in each week's NASCAR race and winners are determined by the number of points earned by the five drivers selected. Match Fixing, Gambling and Professional SportsProfessional sports leagues are unique business entities.

As Neale pointed out, sports leagues rely on competition to make their product interesting 8. One team cannot produce a successful product alone -it must have another team, an opponent, for the product to manifest itself.

The product is the uncertainty of game outcome which in turn affect league standings -a cumulative total of individual games. The uncertainty of game outcome is the core of the sports product 9 and has resulted in the treatment of sports leagues as monopolies This monopoly status, according to sports leagues, is "necessary to bring about the 'equalization of playing strengths among teams' and to maintain public confidence in the honesty of the games" A loss in public confidence about the integrity of games can depreciate the "brandname capital of the firm" 12 as well as the legitimacy and reputation of the league.

The biggest direct threat to the integrity of games and the legitimacy and reputation of leagues are match fixing and point shaving. The early history of professional baseball in North America illustrates the evolution of professional sports' position on the consequences of match fixing. Soebbing describes the prevalence of gambling in early professional baseball In the early years, betting and match fixing were relatively common.

The biggest reason was low player salaries. A sports bettor could offer a relatively small sum of money to a player in exchange for fixing the outcome. The bettor would then make money from the bet, and the player would earn enough 8 See Neale Professionalization, in the form of regular salaries for players, arose in the s and while it helped to mitigate match fixing, salaries still were not high enough to completely discourage players from throwing games.

The event that altered the landscape of baseball was the "Black Sox" scandal. The "Black Sox" scandal refers to a group of eight Chicago White Sox baseball players who took money from sports bettors in exchange for throwing the World Series, Major League Baseball's championship series. The consequence for the eight players was a ban for life by commissioner Kenesaw Mountain Landis.

The penalty given to the eight baseball players "was taken not only to punish the misdeeds, but also to deter future misconduct of the same or similar type" There have been other instances of professional athletes throwing games but with the rise of professional salaries in addition to the threat of a lifetime ban, these instances are becoming less prominent. Today, the large salaries earned by professional athletes deters most throwing or fixing of games.

However, two groups remain vulnerable to match fixing: unpaid or relatively low-paid, low-profile athletes and referees. Amateur athletes, particularly those playing college athletics in United States, resemble early professional athletes in that they are not well compensated.

In fact, college athletes only "earn" the value of their scholarship and room and board expenses. Research estimates the marginal revenue product of a major college football or basketball player at close to a million dollars a year for the university that the athlete attends Research examining point shaving -a player performing in a way that leads the team to lose by less than the point spread of a game -has shown that this exists in college basketball Examples of low profile athletes fixing matches can be found in professional tennis.

High profile tennis players such as Roger Federer and Rafael Nadal earn salaries comparable to professional athletes in major team sports. However, lower ranked professional tennis players are susceptible to match fixing due to not only their low earnings but also because of the individual nature of the sport. In , the internet gambling company Betfair alerted the WTA about highly suspect betting volume on a tennis match that paired a ranked player with an unranked player.

Robson reported that the situation "constitutes one of the most dire threats tennis has faced in the post professional era" Since then, professional tennis has been on high alert for potential matches that have been fixed. The second group that can be susceptible to match fixing are referees. Similar to lower ranked tennis players and US college athletes, referee wages are low.

In addition, referees, no matter the sport, can single-handedly affect the outcome of matches. Recently, two major cases of referees being found guilty of match fixing have occurred. The first was in in the German Bundesliga. In that year, a group of referees expressed concern that another referee in the second division made calls that were deliberately determining the outcome of the match.

An investigation determined that the referee was fixing matches for a group of Croatian bettors with ties to organized crime One of the games in question was a playoff game. A letter filed in court by Donaghy's attorney said that "The N. As a result, the NBA made changes to many policies including the releasing of the names of officials working games as well as the rules governing gambling by officials Match fixing or the potential for match fixing has existed for as long as sports have been played.

The increases in player salaries and the professionalization of sport decreased the incentive to fix matches in some leagues. However, problems still exist in leagues with a wide disparity in wages as well as with referees, who earn much less than players. Gambling as a Benefit to SportMatch fixing and point shaving clearly represent threats to sports leagues.

As stated earlier, leagues take this matter very seriously and attempt to ensure that matches played have maximum uncertainty of outcome. However, sports gambling and the people who participate in the betting market are important stakeholders for sports leagues. Without an opportunity to gamble on sports, some forms of sports may not exist. Even sports that would exist without betting have been influenced in some way by the betting market.

By increasing consumption, the teams and leagues receive additional revenues from revenue streams such as media contracts and sponsorship agreements. In some sports, the bookmakers and sports leagues have formed explicit agreements. Another positive outcome of sports betting is sports betting markets can detect any abnormal betting in matches, indicating that some type of match fixing may be occurring.

For example, consider the match-fixing problems in professional tennis discussed above. Without a sports betting market and collaboration between sports bookmakers and sports leagues, the detection of match fixing in professional tennis might not have occurred. Once abnormal betting volume appears, bookmakers or gambling websites, such as Betfair, can notify the appropriate leagues. This occurred for the tennis match-fixing scandal, and is clearly in the best interest of both the bookmaker and the league.

The bookmaker can maximize the number of people who bet on a particular event and generate the highest profit while the league can increase consumption by offering the most uncertain outcome it can to maintain the legitimacy of the league in the eyes of its stakeholders.

In both the US and the EU, sports bettors will soon see expanded opportunities to place bets on sport. In order to get some insight into the potential impact of these expanded sport betting opportunities in the US and the EU, we analyse the characteristics of sports bettors in Canada and the UK using data from two recently conducted surveys of gambling behaviour from each country. These surveys contain relatively similar questions about sports betting as well as questions about the economic and demographic characteristics of respondents.

This survey included a random sample of all Canadians over the age of These data were collected through a random digit dial RDD telephone survey. The survey was conducted from May to December Over 36, households participated in the survey. These data were collected during a face-to-face interview lasting 35 minutes on average. Just over 26, households participated in the survey. In addition to questions on gambling, this survey contained detailed questions on sport participation and participation in cultural activities like attending concerts, museums, and historical sites.

Both surveys contained questions about participation in sports betting. Although the types of questions differed, the key point is that all three surveys allow us to identify people who have bet on sporting events in the past. In addition, residents of all three countries have easy access to sports betting opportunities. In Canada, sports betting games are offered by monopoly lottery companies that operate a large number of retail outlets and advertise heavily on TV and radio, and in print media.

In the UK, private bookmakers operate thousands of betting shops all over the country. In addition, bookmakers and foot-ball pool operators take bets and entries over the Internet. Access to legal sports betting opportunities should not be a problem for potential sports bettors in these three countries. Table 1 summarizes the estimated participation rates in sports betting markets, and frequency of sports betting in the three countries.

The UK survey contained questions about sports betting, including fixed-odds betting on events like football matches and participation in football pools, in the last week and the last year. The Canadian survey asked questions about participation in Sport Select, the sports betting game operated by lottery operators across Canada over the past year. The estimated participation rates in sports betting markets are similar in Canada and the UK.

The effective price of making a bet on a sporting event also plays a role in determining participation rates in sports betting markets. In the UK, a bettor can place a fixed-odds bet on an individual football match, or other sporting event, with any one of the numerous private book makers operating in that market. The UK is the only market where a bet can be placed on an individual game or match.

In Canada, a bettor must bet on a minimum of two sporting events. The effective cost of a bet also differs due to takeout and overround in each market. This difference in cost does not appear to affect the sports betting market participation rate in Canada, suggesting that sports bettors are insensitive to the effective price.

The Canadian survey also asked questions about the frequency of participation among participants. The bottom panel of Table 1 summarizes these responses for sports bettors. In Canada about half of the sports bettors bet at least monthly and half participate infrequently.

Infrequent participants only bet on sports occasionally, or may have only bet on sports on a handful of occasions. Many of these individuals would not report betting on sports in the last year because of the sporadic nature of their participation.

But infrequent participants would answer yes if asked if they had ever bet on sports, even if they only be on sports one time years ago. Characteristics of Sports BettorsBoth surveys contain detailed demographic and socioeconomic information about respondents.

Table 2 summarizes some of the characteristics of sports bettors in these two countries. Canadian sports bettors tended to be younger and English sports bettors older. The income variables were household income in both cases, and the reported figures have been converted to US-Dollars using the Purchasing Power Parity exchange rate estimates published by the OECD. Canadian sports bettors had a higher income in comparison to sports bettors in the UK.

The estimated average household income of sports bettors in the UK is roughly equal to the median household income in the UK; the estimated average household income of Canadian sports bettors is well above the median household income in Canada.

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Ufc fight night 77 predictions betting odds The US passed a law making transactions between US financial institutions like banks and credit card companies and on-line gambling sites illegal. If these benefits are important, then alternative methods of fi-nancing the training of athletes and the organization of competitions may be desirable. The event that altered the landscape of baseball was the "Black Sox" scandal. Cook Fast. This allows us to develop evidence about sports bettors in these two countries and compare the characteristics of sports bettors across the countries. Hunter Lovins.
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