Shifting energy policy priorities both in China and the EU European Union have transformed their bilateral relationship. In order to assess the impact of domestic policy priorities on bilateral energy cooperation and climate policy, this comparative study traces the evolution of EU and Chinese approaches to energy policy — and their relative emphasis on factors and frames such as availability , efficiency , affordability and environmental stewardship.
Drawing on government documents and a data set of interviews with Chinese policy-makers, experts and academics in —, the article argues that while the EU started with a strong emphasis on environmental stewardship and moved towards a focus on affordability and availability , China started with a strong emphasis on availability and has moved towards a greater emphasis on environmental stewardship.
This shift in frames on the Chinese side and subsequent changes in subsidy structures and targets can partially explain the increase in investments in renewable energy technologies. The article concludes that the Chinese and EU perspectives have become more aligned over the past ten years, coinciding with an increasing trend towards renewable energy in Chinese energy investments in the EU, for example in Italy and the UK.
Chinese energy investments in Europe: An analysis of policy drivers and approaches. Enhancing the understanding of China-EU energy relations, the article examines Chinese energy investments in Europe from to and analyzes the energy interests and policy approaches underpinning them. Analysis of this data shows that within the EU, 30 Chinese investments largely focused on the oil and gas sector, especially through the acquisition of company shares.
Based on a comprehensive set of domestic incentives for international investment the Chinese penetration of the European energy sector is embedded within two levels of political cooperation. The first level revolves around bilateral investment agreements between China and 27 EU member states. On the second level, China and the EU have established a variety of formats that guide their energy cooperation. The conclusion of the proposed bilateral investment agreement between the PRC and the EU would create a uniform investment environment across the continent and facilitate mutual economic benefits for both parties.
Chinese investment in the EU renewable energy sector: Motives, synergies and policy implications. This paper addresses three questions: how have trade and investment in wind and solar sectors evolved between the EU and China in recent years?
Is there a link between rising trade conflicts and trade and investment trends? To address these questions we analyze trade and investment data, as well as qualitative data, including information from media and company reports. Large increases in trade and investment were followed by rapid falls since — Trade tensions have not led to increases in investment, rather the inverse.
We find that Chinese investment in these two sectors is very concentrated in Germany. Most investments are greenfield, a preference that has persisted over time. Our qualitative analysis of several key acquisitions indicates that technology integration and the consolidation of capacities across the supply chain were key motivations in most of the cases studied.
We conclude with some policy orientations. Increasingly China is turning its attention to the export market using its own designs, which it claims emulate the safety standards of the latest designs of the established nuclear reactor vendors. Its export efforts would be greatly strengthened if it were to win an order from an established user of nuclear power and its best opportunity appears to be the UK where it is at the early stages of negotiating the construction of nuclear reactors.
The financial collapse of the French nuclear company, Areva, gives it the opportunity to take a stake in the rescued companies giving it access to important fuel cycle technologies and perhaps the large French reactor service market. Its other export prospects in Europe are in Romania and Turkey. There are a number of issues European governments need to examine before committing to allow in Chinese nuclear companies.
We also assess the short- and long-term strategies of the European Union and European solar and wind industries to ameliorate potential supply bottlenecks. While these strategies adequately address short-term challenges, we find they pose several long-term risks, such as increasing the dependence on China and hampering European competitiveness in global markets. There is also divergence in the extent to which these two industries are vulnerable to supply bottlenecks and price volatility; because more options are open to them, European solar manufacturers are less exposed to these risks than their counterparts in the offshore wind sector.
Southern European countries have not missed out on this trend and have gradually consolidated as important recipients of Chinese investments. This has allowed them to accumulate The energy sectors of all four countries have been primary beneficiaries. Chinese entities have carried out impressive acquisitions in the Italian and Portuguese energy markets. In contrast, their presence in the Greek and Spanish energy markets has been discrete.
The former two countries have received significant investments in solar-related greenfield projects, whereas the latter have mostly benefited from operations in wind-related ones. For those of you putting together presentations to people whose buy-in you need - citizens, public officials, investors, customers, etc.
It looks like a tipping point is being reached, says Douglas Broom … [Read more The adoption of peer-to-peer P2P electricity trading will turn individual consumers from passive to active managers of their networks. Such a marketplace can relieve constraints on the growing system and offer an alternative to costly grid reinforcements. Arina Anisie and Francisco Boshell at IRENA run through the benefits, including investment costs, bills, resilience, congestion, mini-grids, energy access, and more.
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The whole-energy system is always complex. The build out of wind and solar in the U. It should result in a major boost to stagnating communities. By rural clean energy … [Read more Blue hydrogen is created from fossil sources, where the carbon emissions are captured and stored. Green hydrogen is made from non-fossil sources and favoured by policy makers who are wary of keeping the fossil economy going, even with CCS. As more regions commit to hydrogen, finding the right cost-optimal mix is crucial to its success.
Schalk Cloete summarises his paper that models the whole system based on Germany. Integrating hydrogen will … [Read more Study identifies causes of soaring Nuclear plant cost overruns. Create new laws to help bring Battery manufacturing to Europe.
Solar power stations in space that beam uninterruptible power back to Earth. Rolling out EV charging infrastructure beyond cities. Accelerating renewables in Central and South East Europe.
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